Reference materials are quite useful for finding background information and can be a great starting point for learning names, dates, terms, etc. For this borderlands topic, a certain amount of creativity on the part of the researcher will be necessary. The researcher may need to look up individual states, names, events, or specific locations. The online encyclopedias are available to CSU affiliates only.
- American Eras. 6 vols. E 169.1 .A471979 1997 Reference (Vols. 1-4 cover 1600-1850)
- American Revolution Reference Library. 5 vols.
- Colonial America Reference Library. 6 vols.
- Dictionary of American History. E174 .D52 2003 Reference
- Dictionary of American Biography. 22 vols. E 176 .D56 Reference
- Dictionary of Canadian Biography. 14 vols. F 1005 .D49 Reference
- Encyclopedia of American History. E 174 .E58 2003 Reference Vols. 1-4 cover through 1855
- Encyclopedia of American Studies. E 169.1 .E625 2001 Reference
- Encyclopedia of American Women in Business: From Colonial Times to the Present. 2 vols. HD 6054.4.U6 K753 2005 Reference
- Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society, & Culture. 2 vols. F 1210 .E63 1997 Reference
- Encyclopedia of War and American Society. E181 .E634 2006 Reference
- Encyclopedia of Women in American History. 3 vols. HQ 1401 .E53 2002 Reference
- Encyclopedia of Women in the American West. HQ 1438 .W45 E53 2003 Reference
- Gale Library of Daily Life: Slavery in America. 2 vols.
- Gale Virtual Reference Library.
- Handbook of North American Indians. E 77 .H25 Reference Vol. 4 is History of Indian-White Relations; other volumes also useful
- Historical Encyclopedia of American Women Entrepreneurs: 1776 to the Present. HF 3023.A2 O64 2000 Reference
- A History of Women in the United States. 4 vols. HQ 1410 .H58 2004 (State by state.)
- History Reference Online. (ABC-CLIO.)
- Mexican-American War.
- Milenios de México. 3 vols. F1204 .M955 1999 Reference Vol. 1 has "Esta dos Unidos de América."
- Oxford Companion to Canadian History. F 1026 .O93 2004 Reference
- Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. 5 vols.
- U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. 8 vols.
- United States in the Nineteenth Century. E 169.1 .E626 2001 Reference
- War of 1812.
- Who Was Who in America. E 663 .W54 Reference Vol. 1 is 1607-1896
Identifying Books on Early North America
Books are an important source for information. The subject headings listed in this section can be used to find books related to North American borderlands in any library catalog which uses Library of Congress Subject Headings, including CSU's library catalog. Do a subject search using the terms below to identify books in the catalog and the Regional Catalog Prospector (the Colorado Union Catalog). Books may be requested from Prospector by CSU affiliates. Be sure to look at related subjects (often linked to just above the searched term) and subdivisions. "Sources" at the end of a subject term means primary source.
*Many of these are available full text online (link directly from the library catalog) in the Early American Imprints database available to CSU affiliates only. See also.
Example book titles:
- Barr, Juliana. Peace Came in the Form of a Woman: Indians and Spaniards in the Texas Borderlands. Chapel Hill: Published in association with the William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Southern Methodist University, by the University of North Carolina Press, 2007. E 78.T4 B37 2007 Morgan
- Berkin, Carol, and Leslie Horowitz, eds. Women's Voices, Women's Lives: Documents in Early American History. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998. HQ 1416 .W67 1998 Morgan
- Bloch, Ruth H. Gender and Morality in Anglo-American Culture, 1650-1800. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. MORGAN HQ1416 .B53 2003 Morgan & GMAACebook
- Brooks, James. Captives & Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands. Chapel Hill, NC : Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, 2002. F 790.A1 B76 2002 Morgan
- Craver, Rebecca McDowell. The Impact of Intimacy: Mexican-Anglo Intermarriage in New Mexico, 1821-1846. [El Paso]: Texas Western Press, University of Texas at El Paso, 1982. HQ 1031 .C7 1982 Morgan
- Deeds, Susan. Defiance and Deference in Mexico’s Colonial North: Indians under Spanish Rule in Nueva Vizcaya. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003. F 1219.1.C46 D44 2003 Morgan
- Fischer, Kirsten. Suspect Relations: Sex, Race, and Resistance in Colonial North Carolina. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002. F 257 .F53 2002 Morgan
- Gray, Edward G. Colonial America: A History in Documents. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003. E 187 .G73 2003 Curriculum
- Greer, Allan. Mohawk Saint: Catherine Tekakwitha and the Jesuits. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. E 99.M8 T4583 2005 Morgan
- Gutiérrez, Ramón A., and Richard J. Orsi, eds. Contested Eden: California Before the Gold Rush. Berkeley : University of California Press, 1998. F 864 .C735 1998 Morgan and CEebook
- Hackett, Charles Wilson. Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya and Approaches Thereto, to 1773, Collected by Adolph F. A. Bandelier and Fanny R. Bandelier; Spanish Texts and English translations, edited with introductions and annotations by Charles Wilson Hackett. . . 3 vols. Washington, D.C., The Carnegie institution of Washington, 1923-37. F1410 .H12 Morgan
- Johnson, Mrs. (Susannah Willard). A Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Johnson: Containing an Account of Her Sufferings, during Four Years, with the Indians and French.
New York: [s.n.] 1841. E 87 .H358 1841 Morgan and online as part of Early Canadiana Online and Early American Imprints.
- Little, Ann M. Abraham in Arms: War and Gender in Colonial New England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. F 7 .L68 2007 Morgan
- Moynihan, Ruth Barnes,et al. eds. Second to None: A Documentary History of American Women. 2 vols. Lincoln [Neb.]: University of Nebraska Press, 1993. HQ 1410 .S43 1993 Morgan (Vol. 1. from the sixteenth century to 1865.)
- Perdue, Theda. Cherokee Women: Gender and Culture Change, 1700-1835. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. E 99.C5 P3934 1998 Morgan (Missing, use Prospector)
- Reséndez, Andrés. Changing National Identities at the Frontier: Texas and New Mexico,1800-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. F390 .R46 2005 Morgan
- Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001. E 78.N76 S54 2001 Morgan
- Waldrup, Carole Chandler. Colonial Women: 23 Europeans Who Helped Build a Nation. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999. E 187.5 .W35 1999 Morgan
- Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846: The American Southwest under Mexico. Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, c1982. F 800 .W4 1982 Morgan
Search by author (and by subject for secondary sources) for:
- Coronado, Francisco Vásquez de, 1510-1554.
- Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar, 16th cent.
Articles of possible interest.
Some of these links will only work for CSU affiliates.
- Adelman, Jeremy, and Stephen Aron. "From Borderlands to Borders: Empires, Nation-States, and the Peoples in Between in North American History." The American Historical Review 104.3 (1999). See also Haefeli article below.
- Barr, Juliana. "A Diplomacy of Gender: Rituals of First Contact in the 'Land of the Tejas.'" The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, 61.3 (Jul. 2004): 393-434.
- Barr, Juliana. "From Captives to Slaves: Commodifying Indian Women in the Borderlands." The Journal of American History 92.1 (Jun. 2005): 19-46.
- Bloch, Ruth H. "American Feminine Ideals in Transition: The Rise of the Moral Mother, 1785-1815." Feminist Studies 4.2 (Jun. 1978): 101-126.
- The Canadian-American Border: Toward a Transparent Border? Special issue. Journal of Borderlands Studies 19.1 (2004).
- Haefeli, Evan. "A Note on the Use of North American Borderlands." American Historical Review 104.4 (1999). Refers to Adelman & Aron article. Also NABJSTOR.
- Johnson, Benjamin. "Problems and Prospects in North American Borderlands History." History Compass 4.1 (2006): 186-192.
- Spear, Jennifer, M. "Colonial Intimacies: Legislating Sex in French Louisiana." The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 60 (Jan. 2003): 75-98.
- Wall, Helena M. "Confessions of a British North Americanist: Borderlands Historiography and Early American History." Reviews in American History 25.1 (1997): 1-12.
These journals are owned by CSU. Years of ownership vary. Some are available electronically, some in print, and some both. This is just a selection.
- American Heritage.
- The American Historical Review
- American History
- American Jewish History
- Estudios fronterizos
- Gilcrease Journal
- The Journal of American History
- Journal of American Studies
- Journal of Borderlands Studies
- The William and Mary Quarterly
Identify additional titles of interest (most titles listed above will be included) by doing a subject search in the library catalog for:
United States History Periodicals
Databases & Indexes
These indexes may also be accessed remotely by CSU affiliates (also via the "A-Z Databases" page).
JSTOR. Full text articles at least 3-5 years old (varies by journal). Scholarly journals. Full text.
Search: borderlands and America
America: History & Life. 1964- . U.S. and Canadian history from prehistory to the present. Indexing for 1,700 journals.
Search: borderlands, Mexico, Canada, Indian-White relations, Frontier and Pioneer Life, Texas, Arizona, Mexico (Sonora), gender, race.
Historical Abstracts. 1954- .
Worldwide history. Includes Mexico, Canada, and USA, but Canada and U.S. have better coverage in America: History & Life.Historical Abstracts "covers the history of the world (excluding the United States and Canada) from 1450 to the present, including world history, military history, women's history, history of education, and more. . . . [has] indexing of more than 1,700 academic historical journals in over 40 languages back to 1955."
Project MUSE. Varies.
Search by discipline, if desired.
WorldCat. All years of materials.
Books, serials, archival collections, microforms, images, and more.
C.R.I.S.: The Combined Retrospective Index Set to Journals in History, 1838-1974. Vols. 6-8. Z 6205 .C18 Movable Shelves. Print index--note location in Movable Shelves. V. 6. United States: Biography and genealogy index.--v. 7.
United States black history - Election.--v. 8. United States foreign policy - religion and social history.
Poole's Index to Periodical Literature. AI 3 .P6 Reference South 1802-1901. Print index.
Find contemporary sources from the 19th century.
Digital Dissertations & Theses. 1861- . Many full text 1997-.
Abstracts and citations to dissertations from around the world.
Book article entries aimed at a younger audience up through junior/community college, but could have some useful background information. Also includes "more than 61,100 historical documents; more than 66,000 biographies of historical figures; more than 110,200 historical photos and maps; and more than 80 hours of historical video." Search: boundaries, Canada, Mexico, United States -- Boundaries -- Canada, United States -- Boundaries -- Mexico
Academic Search Premier. Years vary.
Catch-all database.Look here last, if needed, or to find mainstream articles aimed at a lay audience. Most of the articles in here seem to be discussing current "boundaries" topics.
New York Times Historical 1851- .
Most recent years not available. Use New York Times ProQuest Microfilm for more up to most recent month. Find images of articles from the newspaper. Terminology for earlier years will need to be flexible and possibly quite imaginative in order to find relevant materials. The newspaper started just after the time period of this Web page, but looks back and anniversaries of major events might be described and participants interviewed.Historical Sources
American State Papers. Readex. U.S. Governmental sources 1789-1838. Primary sources.
See also the Early American ImprintsSupplement, 1670-1800. Readex. "Captivity narratives" is a genre category. There are 159 of them. There are 45 items under "travel literature." These are all primary sources. Browse by other genres and by subject (subdivided): Economics and Trade; Government; Health; History; Labor; Languages; Law and Crime; Literature; Military; Peoples; Philosophy; Politics; Religion; Science; Society, Manners and Customs; and Theology.
Early Encounters in North America: People, Cultures, and the Environment. 1601- . Alexander Street Press.
"1,482 authors and over 100,000 pages of letters, diaries, memoirs and accounts of early encounters." Browse by author, source, year, encounters, peoples, images, places, fauna, flora, environment, cultural events, and personal event. Search by keyword, author, journal, original language subject, document type, and more.
North American Women's Letters and Diaries. Colonial to 1950. Alexander Street Press.
"North American Women's Letters and Diaries includes the immediate experiences of 1,325 women and 150,000 pages of diaries and letters." Browse by authors, sources, years, places, historical events, personal events, and showcase. Search by a number of options: age when writing, marital status when writing, age at marriaage, year written, and much more.
Summaries, Artifacts, & Documents. CSU History Research Guide section.
Section of "United States of America (History)" Web page. Links to Web sites and CSU databases (only available to CSU affiliates) that have primary source materials to do with U.S. history. A few of these are duplicated on this page.
U.S. Congressional Serial Set. Readex. U.S. Governmental sources 1817- . Primary sources.
Sites that include primary sources (or links to them):
American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement: A Digital Library and Learning Center. Wisconsin Historical Society.
This site has "more than 18,000 pages of eyewitness accounts of North American exploration, from the sagas of Vikings in Canada in AD1000 to the diaries of mountain men in the Rockies 800 years later. . . . more than 150 rare books, original manuscripts, and classic travel narratives."
Divided by: I. Subject Index to Research Sources; II. State Index to Research Sources; III. Research Tools: Finding Primary Sources; IV. Research Tools: Finding Secondary Sources. Bibliographies. In some cases links to sources.
Archiving Early America: Your Window to Early America. All of the materials are proprietary and protected under the copyright laws.
Scrolling news from "This Day in Early America" (one item on day viewed) from early America for today's date. Primary and other types of sources (crossword puzzle, for instance--not primary--invented much later). Advertisements on site.
The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. Lillian Goldman Law Library.
Documents arranged chronologically (later years by century). Worth checking for Americana.
Colonial North America. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Links to primary sources.
Documenting the American South. The University Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
"Documenting the American South (DocSouth) is a digital publishing initiative that provides Internet access to texts, images, and audio files related to southern history, literature, and culture. Currently DocSouth includes twelve thematic collections of books, diaries, posters, artifacts, letters, oral history interviews, and songs." Extensive.
Early Canadiana Online (ECO) . Canadiana.org.
"Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is a digital library providing access to 2,838,778 pages of Canada's printed heritage. It features works published from the time of the first European settlers up to the early 20th Century. [new paragraph] ECO is produced by Canadiana.org, a nonprofit organization for preserving and providing access to early Canadian publications, first on microfiche and now online." Scanned in books and documents. Search: "Indian captivities -- North America" and other terms. Use drop down menu to jump to specific pages.
Early Modern Resources: Americas. Sharon Howard.
"Early Modern Resources is a gateway for all those interested in finding electronic resources relating to the early modern period in history." Links to free sites on the Web (not all work).
The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents 1610 to 1791. Thom Mentrak and Rev. Raymond A. Bucko, S.J. College of Arts and Sciences. Creighton University.
The "entire English translation of the The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, originally compiled and edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites and published by The Burrows Brothers Company, Cleveland, throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century." Researchers are informed that "volumes on this site were not professionally scanned and proof read so if you are using them for publication purposes it is best to recheck them against the original volumes as there are some errors in them. Alexander Street Press does have a full set of the Jesuit Relations properly proofread for scholarly use in their electronic resource: Early Encounters in North America." (CSU has a subscription to this; affiliates have access. See above.)
The Leslie Brock Center for the Study of Colonial Currency. Links to transcripts of primary documents.
Documents are introduced. Includes pamphlets, other contemporary writing, articles, miscellaneous. Articles elsewhere on the Web are not introduced.
Leading up to and through the founding of Jamestown. Nick Luccketti. Copyright 1997, 2000 by The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. 1558-1616.
Words and Deeds in American History. Library of Congress. Chronological list starts with early documents.
United States-Mexico Borderlands/Frontera. Olivia Cadaval. Smithsonian Education.
Essay that covers people at the border, regions of the border, and the border in history.
Check CSU's library catalog (and Prospector) for local holdings. If something a interest is not available, request it from Interlibrary Loan.
Alphabetical by author/title.
Mexican and Borderlands History: Catalogs, Guides, and Directories for Archival and Manuscript Sources. The Bancroft Library. Copyright (C) 2008 The Regents of the University of California.
Sources in the library's collection. Also has links to selected internet sites that may have digital primary sources available online.
The Spanish Borderlands Historiography Redux. David J. Weber. The History Teacher 39.1 (November 2005).
Books on the Web
The Spanish-American Frontier, 1783-1795: The Westward Movement and the Spanish Retreat in the Mississippi Valley. Arthur Preston Whitaker. 1927. Bill Thayer. Book transcribed. Cite as Web source with date accessed if quoting in research project (citation). Peter Smith, Gloucester, Mass. edition. Also F 396 W57 1962 Storage Access.
The Spanish Borderlands. Herbert E. Bolton. 1921. Bill Thayer. Book transcribed. Cite as Web source with date accessed if quoting in research project (citation). "Textbook Edition" in the Chronicles of America Series, Yale University Press. Also E 173 .C551 V. 23 Storage Access.
It is essential that you carefully evaluate whatever you might find, no matter the format. See: How to Evaluate Journal Articles, How to Evaluate Books, How to Evaluate a Web Page, and How to Evaluate a Movie, Video, or Film Clip.
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