This page has information and links to information related to history. See Biographical Research for history of individual people. For specific time periods, places/areas, and/or topics see left-hand side for topics.

Medieval History (Europe & Great Britain) Introduction

This page lists resources related to Medieval history in Europe and Great Britain. For the purposes of this page, the medieval period finished in 1485 (when Henry VII became king of England). Its beginnings are a bit murkier, but the Early Middle Ages in Europe started around the 5th or 6th Century AD.

This site has links to some extremely valuable Web sites with primary materials, so do visit them. Annotations indicate when sites linked to are not in English. (See also selected links for Medieval Middle East History.)

Web Sites                Identifying Books           Books          Indexes (identify journal articles)             People            Specific Topics

Those Who Pray, Work, and Fight

It is well known that in this world
there are three orders, set in unity:
these are laboratores, oratores, bellatores.
Laboratores are those who labor for our living;
Oratores are those who plead for our peace with God;
Bellatores are those who battle to protect our towns
and defend our land against an invading army.
Now the farmer works to provide our food,
And the worldly warrior must fight against our foes,
and the servant of God must always pray for us
and fight spiritually against invisible foes . . ..

Adalbero, bishop of Laon, Poem for King Robert, c.1025; edited by C. Carozzi, Poème au roi Robert.


Europe & Britain General Sites

Look for individual countries or regions within these sites. See sections on France, Spain, Italy, and Vatican for country-specific resources. See also the sections on Mapping the Medieval World and Medical.

Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Paul Halsall, ORB sources editor. Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.

The Internet Medieval Sourcebook is now part of ORB, the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies.  Full text sources: Church Councils; Writings of the Church Fathers; Late Antiquity; Byzantium; Islam; Historiography; Modern Historiography; Literary Texts (Latin, French, Italian, Spanish/Portuguese, Celtic, German, Nordic, English); Medieval Thought; Medieval Spiritual Writing; Governmental, Administrative and Legal Documents; Renaissance Texts; Reformation Texts; Catholic Reformation Texts. Excellent Web site. A lot of material, but especially valuable are the Full Text Sources. If you only visit one primary source Medieval site on the Web, this is it.

The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies. Martin Irvine and Deborah Everhart. Georgetown University. 

Poetry, prose, types of texts. Latin Texts; Old English Texts; Middle English Texts; French Texts; German texts; Italian Texts; Spanish and Iberian Texts. Main page has materials by broad subject and by special topics (such as Arthurian Studies and Women).

Medieval Library. Medieval Libraries of Great Britain. © 2015 Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford.

Web site still under construction.  "The intention of this resource is to unite these complementary fragments in a way that allows the evidence to be approached in an integrative manner. It brings together two standard research tools for medieval libraries: Neil Ker’s Medieval Libraries of Great Britain and the Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues." Entry page lists items by geographical location in England, such as Alnwick, Northumberland, Jervauix, Yorkshire and York, Yorkshire. Search within for specific topics.

Medieval Documents: 400-1399. The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Lillian Golman Law Library. Yale Law School. 

Alphabetized list of documents: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to Treaty at Aiz Between Louis II and Charles the Bald. Translated into modern English.

Medieval History: Primary Sources. Theresa Mudrock. University of Washington Libraries. 

Links to general sites, sites with manuscripts, early and medieval Christianity, and literary works.

Early Medieval Art (Art of the Middle Ages). Art History Resources on the Web. Chris Witcombe, Professor of Art History, Sweet Briar College. 

Links to art pages of Middle Ages: General; Early Christian; Byzantine; Islamic; Early Medieval; Romanesque; Gothic; Late Gothic Art in Italy; Medieval Manuscripts. Some of the links go to sites with popup/popback ads.

History of Medieval & Renaissance Europe: Primary Documents. Section of EuroDocs: Online Sources for European History: Selected Transcriptions, Facsimiles and Translations. Richard Hacken, European Studies Bibliographer. EuroDocs Weaver. Harold B. Lee Library. Brigham Young University.

  Links to and descriptions of primary source materials. Materials are from assorted sites on the Web. Roughly chronological.

Huntington Digital Library. Manuscripts.  Items from 11th century to the present.

Go through items page by page. Object description provides useful information such as creator and physical description. Advanced searching is recommended for more precise results. Covers and all inner pages (even blank one) are available for view. Drag down the viewing space to be able to see complete pages in a larger size.

Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts Collection: Database and Digital Images. Harry Ransom Center. University of Texas at Austin. 

Page by page images of the Ransom Center's Gutenberg Bible and "215 medieval or Renaissance manuscripts that date between the 11th and 17th centuries." [as of 5/24/10] Search by shelfmark, keywords, date range; browse by name, country, century, language, format, subject, and physical features.

The British Library.  A good number of medieval period materials are available online.

Search the Web site, online gallery, catalogue records, and journal articles(a fee is charged for journal articles; CSU affiliates may use ILL for items not owned by CSU). Digitised Manuscripts include items from the Medieval time period.

Bracton Online: Bracton: De Legibus Et Consuetudinibus Angliæ (Bracton on the Laws and Customs of England attributed to Henry of Bratton, c. 1210-1268). Harvard Law School Library. 

This law document that tries to describe English law was probably "written in the 1220's and 1230's by persons other than Bracton himself. It seems then to have been edited and partially updated in the late 1230's, with various additions being made to it between that time and the 1250's. The last owner of the original manuscript and the author of the later additions was probably Bracton." Search it online in English & Latin, English, Latin. The table of contents is also quite useful.

Codices Electronici Sangallenses (CESG) – Virtual Library.  As of January 2016 there are 573 manuscripts. "The Abbey Library of St. Gall is one of the oldest monastic libraries in the world; it is the most important part of St. Gall’s Abbey district UNESCO world heritage site. The library’s valuable holdings illustrate the development of European culture and document the cultural achievements of the Monastery of St. Gall from the 7th century until the dissolution of the Abbey in the year 1805. The core of the library is its manuscript collection with its preeminent corpus of Carolingian-Ottonian manuscripts (8th to 11th century), a significant collection of incunabula and an accumulated store of printed works from the 16th century to the present day." Overview, facsimile, and description of the mss.


Les Collections. Musée national du Moyen Âge. Cluny. Paris. 

Click on Collection and then Les Oeuvres to see selected items arranged by time period. Or choose an area of interest such as "Les Arts." Images of some items found in the museum. Arranged by topic. In French.

Chronicles of Froissart. (Les Chroniques de Froissart), translated by John Bourchier, Lord Berners, edited and reduced into one volume by G. C. Macaulay, London, 1924. eHistory at OSU.  Jean Froissart (c 1333 - c 1410)

"traveled widely including England, Scotland, Italy and the Low Countries. . . . His chronicle covers the history of Western Europe from the early 14th century to 1400 and is considered a key primary source of the era."

Gallica Digital Library. Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BnF). 

Books, manuscripts, maps, images--digitized and available to see online. Multiple time periods, including Middle Ages. Most material is in French.

Rois français du moyen âge. TennesseeBob Peckham. University of Tennessee-Martin. Globe-Gate Project. 

Links to biographical and historical information about French kings. Arranged generally or by dynasty, and by individual. In French.


Libro: The Library of Iberian Resources Online. American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain. 

Full text books online on Medieval Spain. "The Library of Iberian Resources Online (LIBRO) is a joint project of the American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain and the University of Central Arkansas. Its task is to make available to users the best scholarship about the peoples and nations of the Iberian peninsula. Consequently, the book list is principally drawn from recent, but out-of-print university press monographs. In addition, the collection includes a number of basic texts and sources in translation. These are presented in full-text format and reproduce all the matter included in the original print version. The collection focuses upon peninsular history from the fifth to the seventeenth centuries." Author catalog and title catalog list authors and titles alphabetically. The Search (all or any) looks for word(s) within texts.


Italian Medieval History. Italian History Index. WWW Virtual Library. 

"The Italian History Index provides Internet resources on the History of Italy, whether from Italy and abroad, in both Italian and other languages. If the description of the resources are in Italian, this can be taken as indicating that no English equivalent of the pages is available." Annotated links to a lot of material. Most of the links are to Italian language resources. Categories are General, Gateways, Journals, Sources, Bibliographies and Databases, Institutions and Research Centers, Monographical Sites, and Amateurish Sites.


Vatican Library. Site uses cookies. Navigate in Italiano or English. 

Over 640 digitized incunabula (books printed before 1500) and over 3450 digitized manuscripts available to look through online. Manuscripts are viewed page by page (click on the opened book image) as are incunabula (click on text next to number). Includes "spectacular images." Latin and other ancient languages. (Additional reminder: modern English evolved after the "middle ages.")

Mapping the Medieval World

Digital Atlas of Roman and Medieval Civilization (DARMC). Edited by Michael McCormick, Leland Grigoli, Givanni Zambotti, et al. © 2014 President & Fellows Harvard University. 

DARMC offers "the best available materials for a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to mapping and spatial analysis of the Roman and medieval worlds. . . . coverage begins under the Roman empire and extends nearly a thousand years toward the present by encompassing the medieval world. Although the initial post-Roman focus has been on medieval Europe, Byzantium and the Crusades have not been neglected, and we have begun to include the essential third leg of the tripod of medieval civilization, the Islamic world." Under Medieval find Anglo Saxon Sites, Education, Economy, Christianity, Crusades, Islamic Centers, Vikings, and Kingdoms and Political Boundaries. Different colors and symbols indicate locations, so a map can be built with multiple layers that differentiate specifics.


The MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustrations. University of North Carolina University Library. 

Medieval medical manuscripts. View individual images. Use the drag-down/up bar to extend viewing space. Provides source of ms, language, subjects, and more. Download and print options.

Find links to later era medical materials in Web Sources on Early North America: Emphasis on Medical, Medicine, & Health; it might be interesting to see what, if any, knowledge evolved or changed (starts 1500s).

Identifying Books

Books are a key resource for information about the Medieval period. The subject headings listed in this section can be used to find books related to European Medieval history topics in any library catalog which uses Library of Congress Subject Headings, including CSU's library catalog (it is not an exhaustive list). Do a subject search using the terms below to identify books in the catalog and Prospector (the Colorado Regional Catalog). Books may be requested from Prospector by CSU affiliates.

Agincourt, Battle of, Agincourt, France, 1415
Architecture Medieval
Art Medieval
Art and Society Europe History
Black Death
Black Death Europe
Black Death History
Black Death Social Aspects England
Christian Art and Symbolism Medieval, 500-1500
Church History Middle Ages, 600-1500
Church history Middle Ages, 600-1500 Sources
Cities and Towns Medieval
Civilization Medieval
Civilization Medieval 12th Century
Civilization Medieval 13th Century
Civilization Medieval 14th Century
Civilization, Medieval Sources
Clothing and Dress England History Medieval, 500-1500
Clothing and Dress History Medieval, 500-1500
Commerce History Miedieval, 500-1500
Costume History Medieval, 500-1500
Death Religious Aspects Christianity History of Doctrines Middle Ages 600 1500
Economic History Medieval 500 1500
Europe Church History 600 1500
Europe History 476 1492
Feudalism England
Feudalism Europe
Feudalism France
Feudalism Great Britain
Florence (Italy) History To 1421
Florence Italy Politics and Government To 1421
France Church History 987 1515
France History To 987
France History House of Valois, 1328-1589
France History Louis IX, 1226-1270
France History Medieval Period 987 1515
France History Philip II Augustus, 1180-1223 Historiography
France History, Military 1328-1589
France Social Conditions 987 1515
Germany History To 1517
Germany History 843-1273
Germany History Saxon House 919-1024
Great Britain History 13th Century
Great Britain History 14th Century
Great Britain History Angevin Period 1154 1216
Great Britain History Henry VI 1422 1461
Great Britain History House of Lancaster, 1399-1461
Great Britain History Lancaster and York, 1399-1485
Great Britain History Medieval Period, 1066-1485
Great Britain History Medieval Period 1066 1485 Sources
Great Britain History Military 1066 1485
Great Britain History Norman Period 1066 1154

Great Britain History To 1485
Henry V, King of England, 1387-1422
Henry VI, King of England, 1421-1471
Heresies, Christian -- History -- Middle Ages, 600-1500
Holy Roman Empire History 843-1273
Hundred Years War 1339 1453
Ireland History 1172 1603
Ireland History 1172 1603 Sources
Ireland History English Conquest 1166 1186
Ireland History To 1172
Ireland History To 1603
Italy Church history 476-1400
Italy History 476Great Britain History John, 1199-1216 -774
Italy History 476-1268
Italy History 1268-1492
Italy History 1268 1492 Sources [3 ct]
Jews History 70 1789
Jews Legal Status, Laws, etc. Europe
Judaism (Christian theology) History of doctrines Middle Ages, 600-1500
Learning and scholarship History Medieval, 500-1500
London England History To 1500
London England History To 1500 Sources
Knights and knighthood
Marriage Customs And Rites Medieval
Middle Ages
Middle Ages Bibliography
Middle Ages Historiography
Middle Ages History
Middle Ages History Sources
Middle Ages In Literature
Middle Ages Sources
Military Art And Science History Medieval 500-1500
Monasticism and Religious Orders History Middle Ages, 600-1500
Mysticism England History Middle Ages, 600-1500
Mysticism History Middle Ages, 600-1500
Plague Great Britain History
Plague History
Religious thought Middle Ages, 600-1500
Scotland History 1057 1603
Scotland History Robert I, 1306-1329
Scotland History War of Independence, 1285-1371
Spain History Gothic Period 414-711
Social History Medieval, 500-1500
Spain Church History
Spain History 711-1516
Theology, Doctrinal History Middle Ages, 600-1500
Theology History Middle Ages, 600-1500
Venice (Italy) Civilization To 1797
Venice (Italy) History 697-1508
Venice (Italy) History 697-1508
Women England History Middle Ages, 500-1500
Women Europe History Middle Ages, 500-1500
Women France History Middle Ages, 500-1500
Women History Middle Ages, 500-1500
Women in Christianity History Middle Ages, 600-1500

*While there are different schools of thought, the author of these pages is in the group that believes that "feudalism" never existed in Europe or England.


  • Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 13 vols. + suppl. D 114 D5 1982 Morgan
  • Encyclopedia of Death & the Human Experience. 2009. EDHEinGVRLonline
  • Encyclopedia of the Medieval World. 2 vols. D114 .E55 2005 Reference
  • Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. D114 .B86 1995 Reference
  • Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. 2 vols. D114 .E53 2000 Reference
  • Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages . EMAOnline; CSU affiliates only
  • Encyclopedia of Women in the Middle Ages. HQ1143 .L38 2001 Morgan
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2007. EJinGVRLonline. See "Strasbourg" entry.
  • Gale Virtual Reference Library. GVRLOnline; CSU affiliates only
  • Medieval Wordbook. CB351 .C63 1996 Reference
  • The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 4 vols. D114 .O94 2010 Reference
  • Women in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia. 2 vols. HQ1143 .W643 2004 Morgan

Books--Circulating or Web

  • ACLS Humanities Ebook Collection. American Council of Learned Societies.
  • The Apostolic See and the Jews. 6 of 8 vols. at CSU Storage Access
  • The Bubonic Plague and England: An Essay in the History of Preventive Medicine. Charles F. Mullett. 1956. BPEebook
  • Clement VI: The Pontificate and Ideas of an Avignon Pope. 1989. Storage Access
  • Death and Dying in the Middle Ages. Ed. Edelgard E. DuBruck and Barbara I. Gusick. 1999. HQ1073 .D395 1999 Morgan
  • Daily Life of the Jews in the Middle Ages. Norman Roth. 2005. DS112 .R767 2005 Morgan
  • Flectat cardinales ad velle suum? Clemens VI. und sein Kardinalskolleg. via CSU Prospector
  • The Flower of Chivalry: Bertrand Du Guesclin and the Hundred Years War. 2003. DC97.D8 V45 2003 Morgan
  • From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague, and Death in the Later Middle Ages. John Aberth. 2001. DA245 .A24 2001 Morgan
  • The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century. William C. Jordan. 1996. D202.8 .J67 1996 Morgan and GFNEEFCebook
  • HathiTrust.
  • Jewish Travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 Firsthand Accounts. Ed. Elkan Nathan Adler. 1987. G277 .O88213 1987 Morgan
  • Letters, Orders and Musters of Bertrand du Guesclin, 1357-1380. 2004. DC97.D8 D8 2004 Morgan
  • Lost Kingdoms: Celtic Scotland and the Middle Ages. John L. Roberts. 1997. LKCSMAebook
  • Medieval History: A Source Book. ed. Donald A. White. 1965. D113.5 .W5 Morgan
  • Medieval Italy: Text in Translation. Ed. Katherine L. Jansen et al. 2009. DG501 .M535 2009 Morgan
  • The Third Horseman: Climate Change and the Great Famine of the 14th Century. William Rosen. 2014.
  • TMG 1 (2014): Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death. PDF Monica Green. The Medieval Globe. ScholarWorks at Western Michigan University. 336 pages. Signed essays on topics to do with the Plague; extensive bibliographies for each.
  • The Towns of Italy in the Later Middle Ages. Trans. Trevor Dean. 2000. DG500 .T69 2000 Morgan
  • Women in the Middle Ages. Frances and Joseph Gies. 1978. HQ1143 .G53 1978 Morgan and Special

Indexes (identify journal articles)

Most Medieval history research is done in books (and now the Web for primary sources). There are journal articles, but they are more easily identified in the bibliographies of books or via book-length bibliographies. That said, there are useful journal articles which must not be neglected! Use the bibliographies of these articles as resources for additional sources.

Humanities Index. 1974-March 1999. AI 3 .I495 Reference  Core journals dealing with history, literature, and other humanities. Good coverage of humanities topics such as: Medieval period, 1066-1485.

These indexes may also be accessed by CSU affiliates via the "Articles & Databases" pages. See Truncation and Proximity Operators for advanced searching methods for these and other databases.

JSTOR. Full text articles at least 3-5 years old (mostly, and varies by journal). 

A useful index for Medievalists. Full text or linked to full text for more recent articles (most of them). Select "History" journals after typing in search term(s). Also select other groups of journals, depending upon the topic being researched: Art & Art History, Language & Literature, Philosophy, etc.

Project Muse.  Full text articles (view in PDF), with a nice cross section of Medieval history topics.

Historical Abstracts. 1954- .  Covers 1450 to the present, so medieval coverage is minimal, but can be very helpful.


  • *History Compass. 2003- HConline to CSU affiliates
  • Quidditas: Online Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association. 1980- Free JRMMRAejournal
  • The Medieval History Journal. 1999- MHJonline to CSU affiliates
  • *Speculum. 1926- Speconline to CSU affiliates

    *Required for HIST492 Spring 2016 Capstone


Geoffrey Chaucer. Naomi Lederer. Colorado State University.  Literary focus with links to primary sources. Includes links to biographical information. Recommendations on how to identify additional resources. Has section on related materials which includes the Internet Medieval Sourcebook also listed on this Web page.

Specific Topics

Decameron Web. Brown University.  Links to contemporary perspectives (primary sources).

The Uprising of 1381. Norton Anthology of English Literature.  Introductory matter to primary source material on the events of 1381.


As in all research, be sure to evaluate what you find, be it an article, book, or Web page.

Author Information

Content: Naomi Lederer


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