This page has information and links to information related to history. See Biographical Research for history of individual people. For specific time periods, places/areas, and/or topics see left-hand side for topics.

Early Modern European History Introduction

This page is of interest researchers studying the Social Question in Modern Europe or Modern European Gender History. However, anyone doing research or interested in the early modern European history (ca. 1750-1950) should find it useful.

Reference                              Books                      Indexes (identify journal articles)                           Web Sites


Reference materials are quite useful for finding background information and can be a great starting point for learning names, dates, terms, etc. Below is a very short list of titles available. Researchers interested in European history should browse the Reference shelves between call numbers D-DD and DG-DR. Not all titles are relevant to early modern or modern history, but many of them are. The online encyclopedias are available to CSU affiliates only.


Books are a key resource for information . The subject headings listed in this section can be used to find books related to early modern European history topics in any library catalog which uses Library of Congress Subject Headings, including CSU's library catalog. Do a subject search using the terms below to identify books in the catalog and Prospector (the Colorado Union Catalog). Books may be requested from Prospector by CSU affiliates.

Crime Europe History
Europe -- Social policy
Europe History 18th Century
Europe History 20th Century
Europe History 1648 1789
Europe History 1789 1815
Europe History 1789-1900
Europe History 1815 1848
Europe History 1815 1871
Europe History 1848 1849
Europe History 1848 1871
Europe History 1871 1918
Europe History 1914
Europe History 1918 1945
Europe History 1918 1945 Sources
Europe History 1945
Europe History Military
Europe History Military 18th Century
Europe History Military 19th Century
Europe History Military 20th Century
Europe -- Emigration and immigration
Europe -- Intellectual life
Europe -- Intellectual life 18th Century
Europe -- Intellectual life 19th Century
Europe -- Intellectual life 20th Century
Europe -- Social conditions.
France -- Social conditions -- 18th century
France -- Social conditions -- 19th century
Germany Social conditions
Germany Social Conditions 19th Century
Germany Social Conditions 20th Century

History, Modern -- 19th century
Industries Europe History
Italy Social Conditions
Labor Movement Europe History Medical Policy Europe
Medical Policy Great Britain
Science -- History
Science -- Social aspects
Science and civilization
Science Social Aspects History
Social medicine -- Europe -- History [2 titles]
Social Change Europe Europe History
Spain Social Conditions
Technology -- History
Urban policy -- Europe
Women Europe History 18th Century
Women Europe History 19th Century
Women Europe History 20th Century
Women Europe Social Conditions
Women History
Women France History
Women France History 18th Century
Women France History 19th Century
Women Germany History
Women Germany History 18th Century
Women Germany History 19th Century
Women Germany History 20th Century
Women Italy History
Women Russia History
Women -- Russia -- History -- 19th century.
Women -- Russia -- History -- 20th century.
Women Spain History



Journal of Early Modern History. ASP 1999- most recent year not available
Journal of European Studies. D 1 .J575  Movable Shelves and online 1999-
Journal of Modern History. D 1 .J6 JSTOR 1929-2001; 1997-
Lancet. Lonline 1823-

Contemporary Periodicals

Punch, or, The London Charivari. AP 101 .P8 Storage. CSU owns Volumes 1-117,119-196,198-208,226,228,230,232,234-236,238-257,271; years 1841-1976
London Times. 1785- . AN .T5 Microtext film. Also online in Time Digital Archive (CSU affiliates only)

Indexes (identify journal articles)

Most European history research is done in books (and now the Web for primary sources). There are journal articles, but they are more easily identified in the bibliographies of books or via book-length bibliographies. That said, there are useful journal articles which must not be neglected! Use the bibliographies of these articles as resources for additional sources.

These indexes may also be accessed by CSU affiliates via the "Research Databases" pages.

British & Irish Women's Letters & Diaries (1500-1900).  Full text letters and diaries.

Historical Abstracts. 1954- .  Covers the Western world. Subjects: Europe; Social Problems.

JSTOR. Full text articles at least 3-5 years old (varies by journal).  Selected history journals have issues from years of interest; thereby having utility as primary/contemporary sources.

Project Muse.  Full text articles (view in PDF).

Printed Index & Newspaper & British Parliamentary Papers & Early English Books (Selected)

Humanities Index. AI 3 .I495 Reference 1974-98.

Core journals dealing with history, literature, and other humanities. Good coverage of humanities topics.

Palmer's Index to the Times Newspaper. 1790-1941, other years, different title nearby. ( London) AI 21 .T51 Reference

The Times. [London] AN .T5 Microtext Film 1785- . Current in Newspapers (North end of Journal Room). Also online in Time Digital Archive (CSU affiliates only).

Checklist of British Parliamentary Papers in the Irish University Press 1000-Volume Series 1801-1899. Z2019 .I73 1972 REF.  Use the checklist (Part II is recommended, see broad subjects just below) to identify which volume you need. Then request the volume from storage via the library catalog (volumes are not available immediately or over weekends, so plan ahead; if requested after noon on Friday, items will not be available until after noon on Monday, if requested before 7am). A title search for British Parliamentary pages brings up all volumes. If you know your specific area, a Boolean keyword search might be more efficient: British parliamentary papers and education. Then select the specific topic volume(s) from the list. If your topic merits a volume name, use that term, for example: British parliamentary papers and public libraries.

Part I Chronological
Part II Alphabetical Subject Set List

  • Agriculture
  • Anthropology
  • Colonies
  • Crime and Punishment
  • Education
  • Emigration
  • Famine
  • Fisheries
  • Fuel and Power
  • Government
  • Health
  • Industrial Relations
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Insurance
  • Inventions
  • Legal Administration
  • Marriage and Divorce
  • Military and Naval
  • Monetary Policy
  • National Finance
  • Newspapers
  • Poor Law
  • Population
  • Posts and Telegraphs
  • Religion
  • Shipping
  • Slave Trade
  • Social Problems
  • Stage and Theatre
  • Trade and Industry
  • Transport
  • Urban Areas

Part III Key Word Title Index to Part II

Short Title Catalog: Pollard & Redgrave (STC I, 1475-1640) and Wing (STC II 1641-1700). This is a collection of Early English Books on Microfilm; it is only a selection of the possible total. There are two sets of books to use to identify items on the microfilm.

CSU owns STC I reels: 1-36, 1193-1337 and STC II reels: 302-649. These microfilms are located at call number AC 1 .E5 in the Journal Room in gray file drawers.

  • STC I: Pollard & Redgrave (A Short-Title Catalog of Books Printed in England, Scotland, & Ireland and of English Books Printed Abroad 1475-1640) CSU has the 2nd edition in Reference (Jackson & Perguson and Pantzer) Z 2002 .P77 1976 Reference [dark blue volumes]
  • STC II: Wing (Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America, and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1641-1700.) CSU has the 2nd edition in Reference Z 2002 .W521 Reference [dark pink volumes]

Use Pollard & Redgrave (STC I) or Wing (STC II) to identify items of interest by author or subject. Write down the identifying number on the left hand side in the author section. If using Wing, also take note of the letter of the alphabet--each letter starts with number 1, so you need to note whether it is A, B, C, etc. You then must take that number (or letter/number combination) to find out on which reel of microfilm that the item can be found.

There are separate guides to the reels, depending upon whether it is P&R or Wing.

The P&R (Early English Books 1475-1640) Cross Index to Reels 1-1536 is found at Z 2002 .E1 1st-42d reel nos. 1-1536 Ref

The Wing (1641-1700) A Cross Index to Years 1-18 of the Microfilm Collection, Reels 1-649 is found at Z 2002 E14 1st-18th reel nos. 1-649 Ref

After finding out on which reel number the item is found, it is a very good idea to look up that particular reel in the appropriate P&R or Wing listing guide books (slender volumes, home-bound) to see where on the reel the item is. Is it the first item? The fifteenth? The microfilm has black spaces between books, so knowing which item it is will make it much faster to search the microfilm.

A possible short cut:

One can also find useful information in WorldCat. For example, a search for personal name: Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius, 1486?-1535 AND keyword Early English Books brings up the following title on microform: Female pre-eminence, or, The dignity and excellency of that sex above the male: an ingenious discourse. In one of the note fields it indicates: Early English books, 1641-1700 ; 444:4. Wing; A784. What this means is that this item can be found in the Wing set of microfilms (that is to say, STC II), reel 444, the 4th item on the microfilm. This matches perfectly with what your librarian discovered when she went to Wing page 36, where number 784 was listed to the left of the entry for Agrippa, Henricus Cornelius. Female Pre-eminence; after recording/taking note of that number and the fact that it came from an author whose last name began with "A", she then went to Early English books 1641-1700 Selected from Donald Wing's Short-Title Catalogue: A Cross Index to Years 1-18 of the Microfilm Collection, Reels 1-649 (call number Z 2002 E14 1st-18th reel nos. 1-649 Ref) where she looked up A784 and saw that the reel number was 444. She then went to A Guide to Years 13-17 of the Microfilm Collection, Reels 444-620 (Z 2002 .E13 13th-17th reel nos. 444-620 Ref) and looked up reel 444. The 4th item listed is: A784 Agrippa, Henricus Cornelius. Female pre-eminence. Because CSU owns reel 444, your librarian looked through it and the fourth item on it was Female pre-eminence. However, a cruise through WorldCat is going to be effective only if you keep in mind that CSU owns only STC I reels: 1-36, 1193-1337 and STC II reels: 302-649. So CSU has far from the complete set. However, items owned by Prospector libraries can be requested online.


The following sites have materials of interest to those doing research in early modern European history.

Pages are arranged first in general, British Focus, France, Germany, Focus on Women, Library Guide.

World War I. CSU History page. 

Lists resources, how to identify additional books and articles, and links to resources on World War I.

Art in 19th Century Europe. CSU Art page. 

Lists resources, how to identify additional books and articles, and links to resources on 19th century European art.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. 

Links to primary sources; arranged by broad topic. For women's writings specifically, see Early Modern Europe section of Internet Women's History Sourcebook (a subset of the Sourcebook--also listed under Focus on Women).

EuroDocs: Online Sources for European History: Selected Transcriptions, Facsimiles and Translations

Primary documents from European countries: Albania, Andorra,Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and Vatican City. History of the United Kingdom: Primary Documents includes England and Scotland. Chronological.

European History Primary Sources. European University Institute, Florence, Italy. 

Browse digital libraries by country, language, period, subject, and type of source. There are also search options. "The purpose of EHPS is to provide an easily searchable index of scholarly digital repositories that contain primary sources for the history of Europe."

Eighteenth-Century Resources — History. Jack Lynch. Rutgers. Eighteenth-Century Resources on the Net. 

Links to a number of sites (a few are listed on this page). Annotated. Divided by: history: general resources, chronologies, enlightenment, exploration, British history, monarchs and prime ministers, crime, piracy, and low life, newspapers, journals, broadsides, and print culture, American history (several subcategories, but these aren't European topics), European history: general, France (with subtopics), Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, other history, military history, and amateur historiography and historical re-enactment.

Virtual Library. History. WWW Virtual Library. 

Has links to broad categories of history as found in the Virtual Library.

Early Modern Resources: Europe. Sharon Howard. 

Site author in earlier version defined early modern as 1500-1800. Links have not been evaluated. Arranged by broad categories.

British Focus

British History Online. Copyright 2003-2007 University of London & History of Parliament Trust. 

Arranged by: places, subjects, periods (11th-19th centuries), sources (Primary sources, Secondary texts, Guides and calendars [Printed guides and calendars of manuscript collections, such as the Calendars of State Papers], Gazetteers and dictionaries, and Maps), maps, and calendars of state papers (appears to be for subscribers only). Browse by period for Papers of British Parliament from 1509 to 1739. Sources:

  • Commons, Debates of (Grey) (10) Debates (1667-94), collected by the Hon. Anchitell Grey, MP (10 vols).
  • Commons, History and Proceedings ( Chandler) (10) Extensive verbatim accounts of Commons debates, 1660-1739, in 10 volumes.
  • Commons Journal (13) The official record of the House. Includes volumes 1-12 (1547-1699) & 85 (1830).
  • London, Old and New (Thornbury & Walford) (6) Surveys London and Westminster and their environs (6 volumes, 1878).

Elizabethan/Stuart History. Naomi Lederer. CSU Libraries. 

Annotated books and links to material related to events that took place during Shakespeare's lifetime. Has terms to search in library catalogs for additional items.

Irish History Online. Irish History Online. 

Contains "what has been written about Irish history from earliest times to the present."

Library of Early Journals (British). Universities of Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester and Oxford. 

A digital library of six 18th and 19th Century journals. Annual Register (1758-1778), Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1750), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (1757-1777), Notes and Queries (1849/50-1869), Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1843-1863), and The Builder (1843-1949). Scanned images of the pages. (Not all are there.)

London Magazine, or Gentleman's Monthly Intelligencer, 1732-1839. From Online Books Page. at Penn. 

Not all years, but see full issues of the magazine from 1732-1784, 1825-1829 (from Michigan's library, scanned by Google), and 1821-1824 (Google books). View page by page.

Making of the UK. British Library. 

Themes for: Elizabeth I and the Spanish Armada; Crown and Church; Oliver Cromwell; Ireland; English Civil War news stories; The Great Plague of London; and James II and William of Orange. Transcripts and/or images of primary sources. Context is provided.

Monuments and Dust: The Culture of Victorian London.  Contemporary texts.

Navigate through the archive link, then genres.

The National Archives. United Kingdom. 

From "about us": "The National Archives is also the official archive for England, Wales and the central UK government, containing 900 years of history from Domesday Book to the present, with records ranging from parchment and paper scrolls through to recently created digital files and archived websites. Increasingly, these records are being put online, making them universally accessible." A resource with many items of interest to the historian. For example, Prerogative Court of Canterbury wills (1384 - 1858). As of January 2015 over 5% of the records have been digitised.

Renaissance, The Elizabethan World.  Life At Court, Heraldry, Sumptuary Laws, Treason Trial, Book Of Orders And Rules, and Mary Queen Of Scots.

Science in the 19th Century Periodical

Entries for around 7,500 articles and references to more than 5,500 individuals and 2,000 publications. Browse for people, authors, illustrators, books, periodicals, and institutions, societies, etc. Searchable by keyword, periodical (seven at present), and date range.

United Kingdom. © Donald J. Mabry. Historical Text Archive. 

Links to multiple sites on the Web with historical material. A wide range of photographs, research articles, documents, and more. A great deal of the material is from time periods not considered early modern Europe. Not all links work. Separate page for London.

Victorian Web. University Scholars Program, National University of Singapore. 

Economic, social, political, history. Science literary relations, authors, visual arts, etc. Links to sites on an off the Victorian Web itself (not all links work). A lot of information about the Victorians. See Gender Matters.


Exploring the French Revolution

A repository of many key documents from the era of the French Revolution. Essays, images, text documents, songs, a timeline, a glossary, and short audiovisual lectures from leading historians.

France. © Donald J. Mabry. Historical Text Archive. 

Links to multiple sites on the Web with historical material. A wide range of photographs, research articles, documents, and more. Some of the material is from time periods not considered early modern Europe. Not all links work.

Gallica. Bibliotheque Nationale de France Digital Library. BnF (National Library of France).

  Search close to a million items from BnF and other affilate libraries. A new display greatly improves the visual appearance of selected books--click on the green NOUVEAU ("new") buttons for this experience. Extensive! Most or many items in French only.


German History in Documents and Images. English and German (Deutsch). 

Materials are divided by era. Of interest to early modern Europe will be the sections on: From Absolutism to Napoleon 1648-1815, From Vormarz to Prussian Dominance 1815-1866, Forging an Empire: Bismarckian Germany 1866-1890, Wilhelmine Germany and the First World War 1890-1918, Weimar Germany 1918/19-1933, Nazi Germany 1933-1945, and the first part of Occupation and the Emergence of Two States 1945-1961. Context is provided for documents, images, and maps.

German History Sources. Richard Weikart. California State University, Stanislaus. 

Documents mostly of interest to 19th and 20th century German history. Arranged chronologically by eras.

IEG Maps. Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz. 

Maps arranged by series (in some cases, by year). Images can be enlarged. Digital and historical maps. (Server für digitale historische Karten.) Bilingual German/English site.

Germany. © Donald J. Mabry. Historical Text Archive. 

Links to multiple sites on the Web with historical material. A wide range of photographs, documents, and more. Some of the material is from time periods not considered early modern Europe. Not all links work.

Focus on Women

Early Modern History. WWW Virtual Library Women's History. 

Annotated links to materials that relate to women. Scroll down for Modern History on the same page.

Women’s History. WWW Virtual Library. 

Links to materials that relate to women by geographical area, special topics, and more.

Internet Women's History Sourcebook. © Paul Halsall, November1998. Last Updated April 16, 2007. 

Subset of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Internet History Sourcebooks. Arranged in various ways; much of the material is not relevant to modern history, but keep looking--scroll down just over half way to find Early Modern Europe and below that Modern Europe. (If go too far you find North America.)

Women’s Suffrage. CSU History page. 

Libguides with primarily primary sources, recommended sources for identifying articles, selected articles and books, and terms for identifying additional books.

Women’s Magazines. Steve Johnson. Cyberheritage. 

Covers and advertising from popular women’s periodicals. Arranged by decade: 1920's (very few), 1930's, and 1940's. No context, per se.

Women Writers Online. Available to CSU affiliates only. 

Covers English language women's writings from 1400 to 1850.

Library Guide for Modern European History

Modern European History. General Research Division. New York Public Library. 

Guide to the resources in the New York Public Library. Check local library holdings for ownership.


As in all research, be sure to evaluate what you find, be it an article, book, or Web page.

Author Information

Content: Naomi Lederer


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