This page has information and links to information related to history. See Biographical Research for history of individual people. For specific time periods, places/areas, and/or topics see left-hand side for topics.

Woman's Suffrage Introduction

The following Web sites and citations have information about the women's suffrage movement in England and in the United States of America. A few of the sources have information about other countries.

Web               Identifying Articles          Selected Articles and Books (citations)          Identifying Books                     Colorado Suffragists


Most of the following links are to primary source documents about women's suffrage in the United States and England.

The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century

Interview with Diane Atkinson.  She talks about how people felt about British suffragettes, particularly their behavior.

By Popular Demand: "Votes for Women" Suffrage Pictures 1850-1920. American Memory. 

Photographs, programs, cartoons, etc.

How It Feels to Be the Husband of a Suffragette, by Him.  American Memory. 

An easier way to read this article (confusingly presented here) is directly from Everybody's Magazine 30 Jan. 1914: 55-63.  The author in the magazine is "ONE."  This article is a riot, and, it makes an excellent case for women getting the vote. The site, which has the text split up, has links to illustrations."Please Visualize the Gentleman 'occasionally explaining' to Grandmama" is an especially wonderful drawing (page 15).

One Hundred Years toward Suffrage: An Overview (1776-1923). Compiled by E. Susan Barber. National American Woman Suffrage Association. 

Detailed outline of events.  Identifies sources.

Suffragists - Women Who Worked for the Vote. About education. 


12 subcategories in the suffragists, articles about suffragists.

Taking a New Look--The Enduring Significance of the American Woman Suffrage Movement. Robert Cooney. 

Thoughtful essay about the importance of the woman suffrage movement.

Votes for Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921. American Memory. 

"167 books, pamphlets and other artifacts documenting the suffrage campaign." Choose browse by "Title" to see the complete list. Some of the documents address women's suffrage around the world.

Votes for Women: The Struggle for Women's Suffrage. By Popular Demand. American Memory. Library of Congress. 

"This selection of 38 pictures includes portraits of many individuals who have been frequently requested from the holdings of the Prints and Photographs Division and the Manuscript Division. Also featured are photographs of suffrage parades, picketing suffragists, and an anti-suffrage display, as well as cartoons commenting on the movement--all evoking the visible and visual way in which the debate over women's suffrage was carried out."

Women's Suffrage. Library of Congress. 

Descriptive sections for: The Early Leaders; The Next Generation; Suffrage Organizations; The Final Push. Other topics have subtopics as well (reform, education, etc.).

Women's Suffrage. TM & © 2005-1996 Scholastic Inc. All rights reserved. 

While this site is probably aimed at young K-12 students, it is a very nice compilation of information. Find out when women got the vote country by country (click on map image in "When Did Women Vote" section) and read a history of women's suffrage (Grolier's, and there is a very nice bibliography).

Women's Suffrage. (USA) Spartacus Educational. 

Overview of women's suffrage in the United States of America. Lots of internal links with more information about the named person or event. Footnotes. See also Votes for Women, which includes names of male supporters.

Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. National Archives. 

This page has links to nine primary sources. Documents are described and put in context.

Identifying Articles

Use the following Databases to identify articles on women's suffrage.

AAS Historical Periodicals Collections (5 Series): 1691-1820; 1821-1837; 1838-1852; 1853-1865; and 1866-1877.  All full text.

Keyword searching. Search and combine: Suffrage, women, suffragist*, vote, voting, vot*, ladies, lady, female, equal, election. Limit by image types such as cartoon or caricature, portrait, etc. (in advanced search). Note while the interface may be familiar, the views of the full texts is different than the others using the same software. Choose Databases to select all 5 series at once, or only the series of interest to you.

Academic Search Premier

Search terms: Women -- Suffrage; Women's rights; Suffragists. Also look up by geographic terms (if need to narrow). Searching for "suffrage" or "voting" alone brings up rights of minorities and others to vote--all legitimate concerns, but these terms without modification bring up a lot of articles that are not related to women's suffrage per se.

America: History & Life

Search terms: Women; Suffrage; Women's Movement; Women's suffrage. Geographic area (e.g., Colorado) can narrow search.

Historical Abstracts

Search terms: Women; Suffrage; Suffrage Movement; Women's Movement. Geographic area (e.g., Great Britain) can narrow search.

JSTOR.  All full text.

Search: women and suffrage (over 10,900 entries when searching all journals). "Women's suffrage" as an exact phrase identifies over 2,200 articles in all journals. Some of the articles are book reviews. Limit "women's suffrage" as an exact phrase to articles and find just over 1,100 articles. Limit by subject area (e.g., History for just over 320 articles) or exact title of journal(s) if you wish. Also limit by the specific area of interest. For example, add United States, England, [country of interest], or a topic: behaviour, suffragettes, anti-suffragists, etc. To identify contemporary articles, narrow the search to These Dates: 1800-1920 (or another appropriate range of years). Contemporary sources are particularly interesting and should be used whenever possible when doing historical research. There are over 500 search results for: suffragists AND Colorado

PAIS (Public Affairs Information Service). 

Search: Women -- Voting . Also, Women in Politics and Women -- Equal Rights. This index also identifies Web sites, books, and government documents.

Project MUSE.  All full text.

Search: Women--suffrage; affiliated topics are: Women's rights and Women in politics.

Web of Science

Do a quick search or topic search for: women's suffrage. Because it is doing a keyword search, not all of the articles are directly about women's suffrage per se, but observed articles provide some valuable context.

Selected Articles & Books

The following are a few articles and books about women's suffrage and related topics. It is not comprehensive! Most of the sources listed date from 1992-1997, but there are a few newer books and some contemporary articles as examples. See identifying articles and identifying books for where and what terms to search to identify additional resources.

  • Adare, Sierra. "Wyoming's Women Got the Vote First--Way Back in 1869, Soon After the New Territory was Formed." Wild West 10.3 (1997): 24+.
  • Amar, Akhil Reed. "How Women Won the Vote." Wilson Quarterly 29. 3 (Summer 2005): 30-34.
  • Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. New York: HIll and Wang, 2005. JK1896 .B35 2005 MORGAN
  • Behling, Laura L. "'The Woman at the Wheel': Marketing Ideal Womanhood, 1915-1934." Journal of American Culture 20.3 (1997): 13+.
  • Brauna, Sebastian and Michael Kvasnicka. "Men, Women, and the Ballot: Gender Imbalances and Suffrage Extensions in the United States." Explorations in Economic History 50.3 (July 2013): 405-426
  • Buhle, Mari Jo, and Paul Buhle, eds. The Concise History of Woman Suffrage: Selections from History of Woman Suffrage By Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Urbana, IL: U of Illinois P, 2005. JK1896 .C664 2005 MORGAN
  • Burkhalter, Nancy. "Women's Magazines and the Suffrage Movement: Did They Help or Hinder the Cause?" Journal of American Culture 19 (Summer 1996): 13-24.
  • Clift, Eleanor. Founding Sisters and the Nineteenth Amendment. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2003. JK1896 .C55 2003 MORGAN
  • Dobkins, Linda Harris. "Politics, Economic Provisioning, and Suffrage in St. Louis: What Women Said, What Men Heard." American Journal of Economics & Sociology 71.1 (Jan. 2012): 54-76. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2011.00813.x
  • Flexner, Eleanor, and Ellen Fitzpatrick. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 1996.  HQ1410 .F6 1996 MORGAN
  • Gordon, Ann D. ed. African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965. Amherst: U Massachusetts P, 1997.
  • Hannam, June, Mitzi Auchterlonie, and Katherine Holden. International Encyclopedia of Women's Suffrage. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000. JF851 .H28 2000 REFERENCE
  • Harrison, Patricia Greenwood. Connecting Links: The British and American Woman Suffrage Movements, 1900-1914. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. JK1896 .H37 2000 MORGAN
  • Hoffert, Sylvia D. "Splintered Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Campaign against Woman Suffrage." Journal of American History 85.1 (1998): 279-80.  Book review for Susan E. Marshall's book; Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1997.   JK1896 .M38 1997 MORGAN
  • Kenneally, James J. "'I Want to Go to Jail': The Woman's Party Reception for President Wilson in Boston, 1919." Historical Journal of Massachusetts 45.1 (Winter 2017): 103-134.
  • Kruman, Marc W. "Suffrage." Reader's Companion to American History Edition 1991: 1043+.
  • McCoy, Kathleen, and Judith Harlan. "The Bloomsbury Group." English Literature from 1785 Edition 1992: 348+.
  • Moore, Sarah J. "Making a Spectacle of Suffrage: The National Woman Suffrage Pageant, 1913." Journal of American Culture 20 (Spring 1997): 89-103.  Footnotes and works cited.
  • Morris, Katy. "‘More Reputation Than She Deserves’: Remembering Suffrage in Wyoming." Rethinking History  21.1 (Mar. 2017): 48-66. doi:10.1080/13642529.2016.1270562.
  • Neuman, Johanna. "Who Won Women's Suffrage? A Case for 'Mere Men.'" Journal of the Gilded Age & Progressive Era, 16.3 (July 2017): 347-367. doi:10.1017/S1537781417000081
  • Peterson, Anna. "Making Women's Suffrage Support an Ethnic Duty: Norwegian American Identity Constructions and the Women's Suffrage Movement, 1880-1925." Journal of American Ethnic History 30.4 (Summer 2011): 5-23.
  • Risk, Shannon M. "Against Women's Suffrage: The Case of Maine and New Brunswick." American Review of Canadian Studies 42.3 (Sept. 2012): 384-400. doi:10.1080/02722011.2012.705862
  • Semple, Jamers Alexander. Representative women of Colorado : a pictorial collection of the women of Colorado who have attained prominence in the social, political, professional, pioneer and club life of the State. Denver: Alexander Art, 1911. F775 .S4 1914 MORGAN SPECIAL also RWConline (at Hudson)
  • Stanley, Charles. "It's Earlier Than You Think: Earlville and the Founding of the Women's Suffrage Movement in Illinois." Illinois Heritage 20.3 (May/Jun 2017): 11-12.
  • *Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, et al. History of Woman Suffrage. New York: Arno, 1969. JK1896 .S8 1969 MORGAN (CSU owns selected volumes only) Vol. 6, 1900-1920 HWSonline (924 pages) Ida Husted Harper PGonline
  • Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn. African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1998.  JK1896 .T47 1998 MORGAN
  • Turner, Edward Raymond. “The Women's Suffrage Movement in England.” American Political Science Review 7.4 (Nov. 1913): 588-609. (in JSTOR)
  • "When Women Got the Vote." Good Housekeeping Mar. 1995: 86+.  Retrospective.  Added material has years women got the vote in (selected) states and foreign countries.
  • Winsor, Mary. "The Militant Suffrage Movement." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 56 Women in Public Life (Nov. 1914): 134-142. (in JSTOR)

Identify Books

Look for book titles in the Library Catalog by subject:

  • Suffragists
  • Suffragists Great Britain
  • Suffragists United States
  • Women Suffrage Colorado
  • Women Suffrage United States History
  • Women Suffrage United States
  • Women Suffrage Great Britain
  • Women Suffrage Great Britain History

Also check Prospector for additional titles owned by Colorado Libraries. CSU students, faculty, and staff may request books from Prospector libraries.

Colorado Suffragists

Note: it may be necessary to do research on a woman's husband in order to find information. See Biographical Research for tips on doing research on someone.

Links below either are about the woman in question or mention her in passing. More than one woman may be mentioned.

Theodosia Ammons. Guide to Papers of Theodosa G. Ammons. Archives and Special Collections CSU Libraries

1839--Frances McEwen Belford--1921. (Mrs. James B. Belford).

300th anniversary of the First Congregational Church, Natick, Massachusetts: 1651-1951. (Bigalow)

Elon Baptist Church Cemetery. Ruther Glen, Hanover County, Virginia. (Bradford)

Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage. (Buell)

History of Methodism in Denver. (Byers)

Colorado Educational Directory. 1919. (Clark)

Representative women of Colorado. A pictorial collection of the women of Colorado who have attained prominence in the social, political, professional, pioneer and club life of the state . . . (Cornwall, Harrington--may be others)

"Having A Purpose In Life Western Women Teachers In The Twentieth Century." Courtney Ann Vaughn-Roberson. April 1, 1985. Great Plains Quarterly. (Grenfell) Women's Associations and the Origins of Social Studies . . . 1890-1920 Christine Woyshner. (GrenFell)

Ione T. Hanna HHWR (Her hat was in the ring). Ione T. Hanna Richard W. Adams. "My Ain Countrie." co-composer (audio available). Also "My ain folk." Ethics of Social Life by Mrs. Jno. R. Hanna. A Celebration of Women Writers. Ione T. Hanna Find a Grave.

Why Did Colorado Suffragists Fail to Win the Right to Vote in 1877, but Succeed in 1893? Intro. Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000. (Hanna) Timeline.

Lucy I. Harrington. prabook. Report of the Attorney General of the State of Colorado. American and English Decisions in Equity, Volume 3. The Literary Digest, Volume 38. A Complement to Genealogies in the Library of Congress: A Bibliography. (Divorced 10 Jan 1893 from George Harrington (?) file number 018115)

Sarah Katherine Tipton Hosmer. Find a Grave. Daughter Katherine Hosmer Obit. New Jersey Hills Media Group. History of Woman Suffrage: 1900-1920. (also others) Women in American Politics: History and Milestones.

Lineage Book-National Society of the Daughters of the American . . .Volume 47. (Hudson) Almira Jane Frost Hudson. Find a Grave.

Biennial Report of the Civil Service Commission of the State of Colorado 1921-1922 . (Kirkland) Notes from the Capital 1918 . (Kirkland) Sweet Delays Dismissal of Commissioners. (Kirkland) Colorado Delegations to the 1916 Democratic National Convention. Political Graveyard (Kirkland)

Alma V. Lafferty. Her Hat Was In the Ring! Alma V Short Lafferty. Find a Grave. House Journal of the General Assembly of the State of Colorado. (Lafferty) Modern World and Business Woman's Magazine, Volume 9. (Lafferty) Denver Medical Times: Utah Medical Journal. Nevada Medicine, Volume 28 (Lafferty) (many more)

Gertrude A. Lee. Her Hat Was in the Ring! History of Colorado, Volume 1 (Lee) State of Colorado 1901: Legislative Manual Containing a List of State (votes cast in 1900 election) (Lee) Report of the Industrial Commission of Colorado December 1, 1917 to December 1, 1918. (Lee)

Minnie CT Love in the 1940 Census. Ancestry.com Colorado (re, eugenics) (Love) Jerry Kopel on Dr. Love and KKK. (more)

Honora Josephine McPherson (born Ward) Born 1883. My Heritage.

South Fork, CO Silver Mines (Patterson--?) and Zinc.

Julie Penrose-A Great Friend of Colorado Springs. Western Museum of Mining & Industry. Julie Penrose. Colorado Encyclopedia. Our History. El Pomar Foundation. (Penrose) Colorado Experience: Spencer & Julie Penrose. Rocky Mountain PBS. Julie Lewis McMillan Penrose 1870-1956: Quick Facts.

Congressional Serial Set: Equal Suffrage in Colorado. (Pitzer)

Agnes Riddle: First Republican Woman Elected to Senate. Colorado Legislative Women's Caucus. Agnes Riddle. Her Hat Was in the Ring! Good Housekeeping Magazine, Volume 55 (Riddle) Women in American Politics: History and Milestones (Riddle)

Helen Ring Robinson: Colorado Senator and Suffragist. (at Riddle) F781 .R63 P37 2011 Morgan. Helen Ring Robinson. Colorado Women's Hall of Fame. Helen Ring Robinson: Colorado Senator and Suffragist. Book reviews. University Press of Colorado. F781 .R63 P37 2011 MORGAN & HRRonline and ProjectMuseHRR (May need to be CSU affiliate to read online). Helen Ring Robinson. Her Hat Was in the Ring!

The History of Equal Suffrage in Colorado 1868-1898. (Rouff) The Spirit of '76, Volume 6. (Rouff) A Preliminary List of the Hemiptera of Colorado (Rouff) John Long Routt was Governor of Colorado 1876-1879; 1891-1893. Colorado School Journal, Volumes 11-12. (Gov. Rouff)

Colorado Women (& Men at times) and Colorado History

Beaton, Gail M. Colorado Women: A History. CWAHonline (May be CSU affiliates only)

Colorado Experience. Rocky Mountain PBS.

Colorado Pioneers @ Riverside Cemetery, Denver, CO. Scott Braddy.

History of Colorado Volume III. 1927. 464 pages.

*Representative Women of Colorado (Denver). James Alexander Semple. 1914. A-B, C-F, G-L, M-R, S-Z.

Resident Noncitizen Voting in Colorado: A History. Colorado History: The Immigrant Voting Project and New York University Law Students for Human Rights.

Stone, Wilber Fiske. History of Colorado. 5 vols. Chicago: S.J. Clarke, 1918-1919. F776 .S88 MORGAN

United States Congressional Serial Set. 1817-1994 (CSU affiliates only.)

Women Who Served in Colorado's House of Representatives. Colorado Legislative Women's Caucus. (Baker)

Women Who Served in the Colorado Senate. Colorado Legislative Women's Caucus.

Suffragists & Others

Census of Population and Housing 1790- . US Census. Clues in Census Records, 1850-1930. National Archives.

Center for the Historical Study of Women and Gender. Thomas Dublin and Benita Roth. Binghamton University. See SWP Suffragists, 1917-1919, NAWSA Suffragists, 1900-1920, and more.

Colorado Historic Newspaper Collection. 1859-1922.

New York Times. 1851- (moving wall).

Nineteenth Century Masterfile. To 1930.

Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers. 1800-1899.

Who's Who of Women of 1914. A-C. D-K, L-R, S-Z Surnames.

Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman's Party. Library of Congress.

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