There are many different types of energy--and a number of ways to create or produce it. There is solar, electrical, kinetic, thermal, geothermal, bond (chemical bond between atoms), and more. It is measured in more than one way. There are social and political aspects of energy. Who controls it? Who has access to it? Who pays for it? Are there waste products affiliated with it? (E.g. coal burning and the pollution it generates.) Find a variety of definitions and descriptions on energy in the reference books found in Gale Virtual Reference Library and elsewhere.
There are some reference titles that have as their entire focus energy topics.
- Alternative Energy. 2007.
- Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability. 2012.
- Encyclopedia of Climate Change. 2016.
- Encyclopedia of Energy. 2013.
- Energy: In Context. 2016.
- Energy: Supplies, Sustainability, and Costs. 2015.
- Green Fuels Technology: Biofuels. 2016.
- Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Assessment of Projects and Policies. 2015.
International in Scope
- Energy & Ethics: Justice and the Global Energy Challenge. 2013.
- Energy Security in Asia and Eurasia. 2017.
- World Energy Outlook. 2017 WEOonline, HD9501 .A2 W6694 Reference (2000) & Morgan
US Government Database
- OSTI.GOV. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information. 2.9+ million Department of Energy items.
Energy: Table of Contents
Table of Contents for Energy
- Energy--Information from Various Governmental Sites
- Solar Energy
- Thermal/Geothermal Energy
- Radiant/Electromagnetic Energy
- Kinetic/Motion/Hydrokinetic Energy
- Electrical Energy
- Wind Energy
- Nuclear Energy
- Chemical Energy
- Energy Consumption, Prices, Various
- Energy Climate
- Agency Web Sites--Energy
- Statistical Resources--Energy
Energy--Information from Various Governmental Sites
One thing to note about these Web sites, and any others for that matter, is that content can change at any time. Be sure to save any content that you might use later. Some of the links below go to the same larger organization, but are listed separately for faster locating.
There are “multidisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers at Argonne are advancing the basic energy sciences, focusing their research and development on a broad portfolio of sustainable and clean energy technologies.”
Climate Kids. Energy. NASA.
Answers questions about different sorts of energy.
Science & innovation; energy economy, security & safety; save energy, save money. Energy news, blog podcast, twitter. Also resources.
Energy & Environment. The White House. (U.S. Executive Branch.)
Statements and information on energy from the President of the United States.
The Energy Data Initiative. Data.gov
“The goal of the Energy Data Initiative is to fuel entrepreneurs with newly available and previously untapped data—both government and non-government data—to spur new products and services that help American families and businesses save money on utility bills and at the pump, protect the environment, and ensure a safe and reliable energy future.” Updates, data (over 245 datasets as of April 2018), and apps.
Energy Resources Program. USGS.
News and current publications.
Energy. USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Overview and information on different types of energy.
ENERGY STAR Overview. EPA and DOE.
“ENERGY STAR is the simple choice for energy efficiency, making it easy for consumers and businesses to purchase products that save them money and protect the environment. EPA ensures that each product that earns the label is independently certified to deliver the quality, performance, and savings that consumers have come to expect.”
Current topics, what's new, podcasts, videos, electric, hydropower, natural gas, decisions & notices, and more.
“NIST develops the testing, measurements, and reference materials needed to ensure the quality of energy-related products and services and ensure fairness in the marketplace.” Topics: Alternative energy; Conventional energy; Electric power/smart grid; Energy efficiency; Fuels; Sustainability.
NREL makes “creative answers to today's energy challenges.” Find quick facts, research programs, technology partnerships, and much more.
Transportation Energy Data Book. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Quick facts; twelve chapters on various forms of transport, 3 appendices, a glossary (18 pdf pages), and useful Web sites. PDF version of edition 36 has 400 pages.
“Today in Energy,” what’s new, coming up, data highlights, features, outlooks, expert’s speeches/testimony, top picks, and information for specific groups (job seekers, policy analysts, media, researchers, students, etc. Foot of page has sources & uses, topics, geography, tools, policies, and related sites.
Members of the committee and upcoming events.
What is Energy? Explained. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Lists different forms of energy, and the two types of energy. Categories for energy. Links to more information.
Colorado's Clean Energy Choices. April 2000.
Overview of resources available to consumers. Topic to ponder: how many of these choices have been used?
Colorado State Energy Profile. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Quick facts. Bar char in trillion Btu. Data of energy indicators: demography, economy, climate. Prices, reserves, supply & distribution, consumption & expenditures, and environment. Analysis with overview and detail. Extensive endnotes. Links to other resources.
See the guide prepared by the Library of Congress on Solar Energy. It has subject headings, recommended readings, and more.
Clean Energy. Energy.gov. Department of Energy.
Energy sources and details about them.
Energy Kids. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Introduction with solar basics and then sections on: Where solar is found; solar photovoltaic; solar thermal power plants; solar thermal collectors; and solar energy and the environment.
Overview of ocean areas with solar gathering point.
Solar. U.S. Department of Energy.
"Through a portfolio of R&D efforts, the Energy Department remains committed to leveraging America’s abundant solar energy resources -- driving research, manufacturing and market solutions to support widespread expansion of the nation’s solar market." Maps, homeowner advice, and more.
Solar Energy Basics. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL.
"Solar is the Latin word for sun—a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the sun falls on the earth in one hour than is used by everyone in the world in one year. A variety of technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for homes and businesses are solar water heating, passive solar design for space heating and cooling, and solar photovoltaics for electricity." Links to detailed information about different kinds of solar energy and additional resources.
Solar Energy. Energy Development. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Information on solar energy systems and potential for implementation in the Pacific Southwest U.S.
Solar Energy NAL. National Agricultural Library. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Information from a variety of sources on solar energy and agriculture.
Solar Energy/Renewable Energy. Bureau of Land Management.
Solar energy project information and solar energy fact sheet.
Solar Energy Technologies Office. U.S. Department of Energy.
"The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs."
Solar Explained. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Information about solar energy.
Solar Newsletter. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Information on page is the current newsletter. Viewers can subscribe to the newsletter. Archives July 2016- . See also Solar Research News.
Careers in Solar Power. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Overview of sunlight and its possibilities. Growth of solar power in the U.S. Diagrams. Types of jobs in the field.
Example of a project that includes Colorado State University.
Solar Boulder, Co. City of Boulder, Colorado.
Overview of Boulder's exploration and use of solar energy.
Solar (Colo.). Colorado Energy Office.
Information on this type of energy and Colorado's use of it. Links to resources. See also Community Solar for low income.
- Agrawal, Rakesh, and Navenett R. Singh. "Solar Energy to Biofuels." Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. 1 (2010): 343-64. (CSU affiliates only or those with access via own library)
This section has information on thermal/geothermal energy. "Geothermal energy is heat within the earth." (Geothermal Explained.)
Climate Change: Ocean Heat Content. LuAnn Dahlman. Climate.gov
Interactive graph, 1955 to the present, shows upper ocean heat. How heat moves, measuring ocean heat, change over time, further reading, references, and link to data.
The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. U.S. Department of Energy. 372 PDF pages.
"A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States." Approach, findings, major recommendations and more.
Geothermal Basics. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy.
Basic definition that includes where it is located in the U.S. Initiatives, Services, efficiency, renewables, transportation. Benefits and other information.
Geothermal Energy—Clean Power From the Earth’s Heat. Wendell A. Duffield and John H. Sass. U.S. Geological Survey. Circular 1249.
Introduction; scroll down for link to 43 page report in PDF. "In an attempt to help national planners and average citizens alike understand the nature and energy potential of geothermal resources, this book (1) describes the distribution and nature of geothermal energy, (2) reviews the common types of geothermal systems that provide useful energy with current technology, (3) considers potential geothermal resources that might someday be tapped with developing technologies, and (4) summarizes the role of earth-science information in assessing and harnessing geothermal resources wherever they occur worldwide."
Geothermal Energy. Tracer Bullet 07-1. Science Reference Services. Library of Congress.
Scope; Introductions to the Topic; Subject Headings; Basic Texts; Specialized Titles; Conference Proceedings; Selected Technical Reports and Government Publications; Standards and Guidelines; Dissertations; Representative Journal Articles; Selected Materials; Selected Internet Resources; and more. Use for identifying additional materials on this topic.
Geothermal Explained. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Brief definition and where it comes from with image of Earth's interior.
Single page fact sheet.
Renewable Heating and Cooling: The Thermal Energy Advantage. Environmental Protection Agency.
Environmental topics (air, chemicals and toxics, greener living, health, science, water, and more), laws & regulations, learn, act, and resources.
Thermal Energy Conversion. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Glenn Research Center.
Information about the branch "responsible for planning, conducting and directing research and development to advance the state-of-the- art in a variety of thermal energy conversion systems for aerospace, as well as non-aerospace applications."
Thermal Energy Conversions: Technical Reference. ENERGY STAR (R) Portfolio Manager. EPA.
7 page document with information on delivery of thermal energy described in various units (kBtu or GJ). Figures show: overview of processes; quick reference multipliers; and conversion factors to kBtu by meter type for U.S. and Canada. Meter types include natural gas, diesel, kerosene, coals, wood, and others.
Careers in Geothermal Energy. Drew Liming. Green Jobs. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Useful historical summary of the use of geothermal energy. Also in PDF (10 pages)
Green Job Hazards: Geo-Thermal Energy. Occupational Safety & Health Administration. U.S. Department of Labor.
"The hazards associated with this growing industry include some very familiar safety issues that OSHA already has standards on and information.' Read more about: Trenching and Excavations; Silica; Personal Protective Equipment; Electrical; Welding and Cutting; Fall Protection. Link to resources and list of fatalities/incidents.
Barriers to Thermal Desalination in the United States. John Tonner. U.S. Department of the Interior. Reclamation: Managing Water in the West. 2008.
"This report presents the results and explains various cogeneration techniques that are used internationally, highlighting the significant differences these have from definitions and expectations of “cogeneration” within the United States. Thermal desalination is often erroneously compared to other desalting processes based on the heat being produced by the direct combustion of fossil fuels. In fact, most thermal desalination systems operating internationally utilize heat from secondary sources, such as waste or byproduct heat which would otherwise be discarded."
Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions. Colin McMillan, et al. NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical Report. NREL/TP-6A50-66763. INL/EXT-16-39680. December 2016.
"This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions."
Geothermal. Colorado Energy Office.
Map showing geothermal spots in Colorado and information about Colorado's use of this form of energy.
- Jones, Greg, et al. "Forest Treatment Residues for Thermal Energy Compared with Disposal by Onsite Burning: Emissions and Energy Return." Biomass and Bioenergy 34.5 (2010): 737-46.
- Muller, A.W.J. & Schulze-Makuch, D. "Thermal Energy and the Origin of Life." Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 36.2 (2006): 177-89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11084-005-9003-4
Radiant energy is energy from electromagnetic waves. "The visible light from the Sun is only one type of radiant energy. The other types of radiant energy are known as gamma rays, x rays, ultraviolet, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves."*
Definitions & Descriptions
Anatomy of an Electromagnetic Wave. Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. NASA Science Beta.
Examples of different types of energy. Definition of waves and more, including frequency. See other definitions in the Electromagnetic Spectrum Video Series & Companion Book, including visible light.)
Chalk Talk: Electromagnetic Radiation. Science 360 Video. National Science Foundation. Just under 1 1/2 minutes.
Audio and visual information about electromagnetic radiation. Chalk talks are "a video glossary to define specific scientific terms or concepts."
The Electromagnetic Spectrum. NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center.
Straightforward introduction fo the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Graphic showing spectrum as wave lengths (e.g. AM radio, microwave oven, TV remote control, UV light from the Sun, etc.). Information on measuring electromagnetic radiation.
Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). Joint Polar Satellite System.
Fact sheet. "Measures reflected sunlight and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth."
Radiant Barriers. Weatherize. In the Home. Energy.gov
Information on what radiant barriers are, how they work, types, and installation. See also Effect of Radiant Barriers on Heating and Cooling Bills.
Radiation Basics. Environmental Protection Agency Archive.
Definition of radiation. More in-depth information on: Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation; Electromagnetic spectrum; and Types of ionizing radiation.
Cell Phones and Cancer Risk. National Cancer Institute. NIH.
Answers questions on cell phones and potential cancer concerns.
Class 250, Radiant Energy. United States Patent and Trademark Office.
"This class provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling or detecting radiant energy, combinations including such methods or apparatus, subcombinations of same and accessories therefore not classifiable elsewhere."
Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer. National Cancer Institute. NIH.
Asks and answers questions about the topic.
Eye Protection against Radiant Energy during Welding and Cutting in Shipyard Employment. OSHA Fact Sheet. United States Department of Labor.
Information about electromagnetic energy and the damage it can do to worker's eyes. Preventative gear minimums described.
Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation. Radiation-Emitting Products. U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
Information on the different types of UV radiation (UVA, UVB, and UVC). Effects of UV radiation on the body, amount of exposure one it likely to get depending upon where one lives in the U.S.
What is Radiation? The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
Common types of radiation and what differences in frequency mean. Short glossary. The Radiation Dictionary defines many other terms.
*"Light." UXL Complete Life Science Resource, edited by Julie Carnagie and Leonard C. Bruno, vol. 2, UXL, 2001, pp. 355-356. Gale Virtual Reference Library.
"Kinetic energy is the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects." (Energy Kids.)
Capturing the Motion of the Ocean: Wave Energy Explained. July 6, 2015. Department of Energy. Energy.gov
Describes the amount of water on our planet and how it is in motion all of the time. Challenges of using this energy. Prototype wave energy converter.
Energy 101: Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy. Energy.gov (3 minutes).
Short film, text provided, on energy from water. Moving water energy is kinetic energy. "Ocean energy."
Forms of Energy Basics. Energy Kids. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Definition of energy and forms of energy: potential and kinetic. Potential includes chemical, mechanical, nuclear, and gravitational. Kinetic includes radiant, thermal, motion, sound, and electrical. In brief.
Hydrokinetic Energy. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Descriptions with detail on different types of hydrokinetic energy and how they can be used: in-stream, marine, wave, and tidal.
Ocean Wave Energy. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.
Descriptions of how ocean waves are caused and how they differ around the world. Descriptions of different ways this energy is captured. See Quicklinks for related topics.
- James, S. et al. "Verifying Marine-Hydro-Kinetic Energy Generation Simulations Using SNL-EFDC." Paper presentated at the Oceans 2011, December 19, 2011. Waikoloa, Hawaii. U.S. Department of Energy.
- Parthasarathy, Raghuveer. "Cars and Kinetic Energy — Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance." The Physics Teacher 50, 395 (2012); doi: 10.1119/1.4752039
- Plummer, M.; Feist, B. (2016). Capturing Energy from the Motion of the Ocean in a Crowded Sea. Coastal Management, 44(5), 464-485. https://doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2016.1208877 (CSU affiliates only; or those with access via their own library)
See a detailed definition of electricity in The Gale Encyclopedia of Science; also relevant and useful are electricity in Energy: Supplies, Sustainability, and Costs; electricity in Energy: In Context; and electricity in Encyclopedia of Energy (all CSU affiliates only); look for bibliographies in these resources.
About the U.S. Electricity System and its Impact on the Environment. Environmental Protection Agency Archive.
Overview of the U.S. electricity system, delivery and use, generation and demand, environmental impacts, and more. Diagrams.
Electric Power. Energy.gov
Topical overview with links to additional information.
Electric Power Annual. 2016, released December 7, 2017. U.S. Energy Information Administration
National summary data, electricity sales, net generation, generation capacity, consumption of fossil fuels, fossil fuel stocks for electricity generation, receipts, cost, and quality of fossil fuels, electric power system characteristics and performance, environmental data, demand-side management and advanced metering, and appendices. Excel format (notes in PDF). At least one table has data from 2006-2016 so comparisons and trends can be made and observed. See also Electric Power Monthly.
Electric Power/Smart Grid. National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST. U.S. Department of Commerce.
News and updates, publications, projects & programs, and tools & instruments.
Electricity: Alternative Fuels Data Center. U.S. Department of Energy.
Basics, benefits and considerations, stations, vehicles, and laws and incentives.
Electricity eia. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Find current issues & trends, recent data, analysis & projections, interactive visualizations, data, & multimedia, and more. Be sure to make a copy/save anything you might use later.
Electricity Explained. The Science of Electricity. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Starts with atoms (and gets bigger and smaller). "Electricity is the movement of electrons between atoms." Diagrams. See also How Electricity is Delivered to Consumers, The Science of Electricity, Electricity is a secondary energy source and How electricity is generated.
Hydroelectric Power. Reclamation: Managing Water in the West. July 2005. U.S. Department of the Interior.
Describes hydroelectric power--what it is, where it comes from, how it works, and a lot more. Diagrams and glossary.
World distribution, advantages, disadvantages, environmental impacts, typical plant, and more.
Diagrams and text explanation of how electricity is generated from water.
Illustrated Glossary: Power Generation Plants. Occupational Safety & Health Administration. US. Department of Labor.
Test Your Grid IQ. Energy.gov
"Do you know your synchrophasors from your microgrids? Test your knowledge of the electric grid with our grid IQ test." 11 questions.
Read about public power in Colorado.
Energy in Colorado, energy efficiency, transportation, finance, low-income services, and more.
Electricity Overview (Colo.). Colorado Energy Office.
Summary, generation, utilities, and grid.
- Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior. Preprint. A. Zipperer et al. NREL. NREL/JA-5500-57586 August 2013.
Find an introduction to wind energy in Alternative Energy. Find more on wind energy in Energy: In Context, or wind energy in Environmental Encyclopedia, or wind energy in Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability. See also wind energy in Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues. The bibliographies in these reference articles will also be useful.
History of Wind Power. Wind Explained. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
History from thousands of years ago until more recent times where wind power was used. Images.
How to Wind Turbines Work? Energy.gov Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy.
Images and text description. Types and sizes of wind turbines. See also What is Wind Power?
Offshore Wind. Sandia National Laboratories.
Areas of research. Stationary power, engineered earth systems, transportation energy, and energy research.
Onshore Wind Energy. Renewable Energy. National Park Service.
What it does and specific impacts such as noise, turbine strikes, visual impacts, and other impacts. Links to related resources.
Wind Basic. Energy Kids. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
What causes wind, daily wind cycle, wind energy, electricity generation from wind, and more.
Wind Energy Basics. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Wind mills to wind turbines. Additional resources. See also Wind NWTC.
Wind Energy Climate. Climate.gov NOAA.
News & features and maps & data. various resources to get climate information.
Wind Energy NAL. National Agricultural Library. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
What can be converted to different kinds of power. Links off to relevant wind energy topics.
Purpose was "to evaluate issues associated with wind energy development." See tabs on page for other information such as the Wind Energy Guide with basic information. The full report includes Vol. 1 (June 2005) with 396 pages in PDF. Vol. 2 has 294 pages and appendices. Vol. 3 has 702 pages. Extensive report
Wind Power. Tracer Bullet 07-7. Science Tracer Bullets Online. Science Reference Services. Library of Congress.
Careers in Wind Energy. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Detailed information on history of wind energy, its current use for power, and occupations in wind power. Diagrams and tables.
Green Job Hazards: Wind Energy. Occupational Safety & Health Administration. U.S. Department of Labor.
Hazards that might be faced by workers in wind energy. Fatalities/incidents (most recent as of link was August 2009).
Quiz: Test Your Wind Energy IQ. Energy.gov
- Schwartz, Marc, et al. "Assessment of Offshore Win Energy Resources for the United States". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical Report NREL/TP-500-45889. June 2010.
- Seltenrich, Nate. "Wind Turbines: A Different Breed of Noise?" Environmental Health Perspectives 122.1 (January 2014): A20-A25. DOI:10.1289/ehp.122-A20
- "Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and Their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions." American Wind Wildlife Institute. January 2014.
5 Fast Facts about Nuclear Energy. Office of Nuclear Energy. Energy.gov
History of nuclear energy use in the U.S. Various statistics and information about it. See also Nuclear.
Glossary (Nuclear). U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
A-Z terms. Click on term to see definition.
Nuclear Energy: A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change. EPA. Archival page.
Information about atoms, how a nuclear power plant works (with diagram). "Cool Facts."
Nuclear Energy Tracer Bullet 11-5. Science Tracer Bullets Online. Science Reference Services. Library of Congress.
Resources useful for doing research on nuclear energy.
Nuclear Explained. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
What nuclear energy is and additional information. See also nuclear power plants.
Nuclear Power Energy Development. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Uses for nuclear power and considerations for fish and wildlife.
Nuclear Power Plants. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
About nuclear power plants, rules and guidance, what you can do, and where to learn more.
Nuclear Reactors, Materials, and Waste Sector. Homeland Security.
Sector overview, specific plan, and resources.
Office of Nuclear Energy. Energy.gov
Blog, press releases, current topics, recent publications, and more.
Uranium (nuclear) Basics. Energy Kids. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Information about atoms and nuclear fuel made from uranium.
What is Nuclear Energy? U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Definition. Also links to nuclear reactors, radiation, radioactive material, etc.
Nuclear (Colo.). Colorado Energy Office.
Information on Colorado's use of nuclear energy. (Currently no nuclear power plants.)
As a separate entity, there isn't a lot directly on chemical energy in government publications. However, there are a few useful items worth exploration.
Biomass Explained. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Brief, but detailed overview. "When biomass is burned, the chemical energy in biomass is released as heat."
"The Chemistry and Nanoscience Center at NREL investigates materials and processes for converting renewable and clean energy resources such as sunlight, heat, and renewable fuels into chemical and electrical energy in the form of fuels, or other chemical and electrical energy storage. The center conducts research across the entire spectrum—from foundational research to working closely with industry to commercialize new technologies." Sections on electrical energy storage, hydrogen and fuel cells, photovoltaics, solar photochemistry, manufacturing for energy applications, and quantum and carbon nanomaterials,.
Dare to Compare. Kids' Zone. Learning with NCES.
Twenty questions. Not all to do with chemical energy, but more than one. Test yourself!
- Cooper, Melanie M., and Michael W. Klymkowsky. “The Trouble with Chemical Energy: Why Understanding Bond Energies Requires an Interdisciplinary Systems Approach.” Ed. Eric Brewe. CBE Life Sciences Education 12.2 (2013): 306–312.
- He, S., et al. "Chemical-to-Electricity Carbon: Water Device." Advanced Materials (2018 Mar 26): e1707635. doi: 10.1002/adma.201707635 (full text CSU affiliates or those with access through their libraries)
Energy Consumption, Prices, Various
Read about energy conservation in
Average Energy Prices for the U.S., regions, census divisions, and selected metropolitan areas. Midwest Information Office. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Gasoline/price per gallon, household energy.
Consumption & Efficiency. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Current issues and trends, recent data, analysis & projections, consumption surveys, interactive visualizations,data, & multimedia, and energy education.
Energy Consumption. Data.gov
Over 25 datasets with energy consumption as a term.
Energy Data Facts. Residential Program Solution Center. U.S. Department of Energy.
Popular data points for residential and consumer energy.
Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis – 2017: Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135. Priya D. Lavappa, Joshua D. Kneifel, and Eric G. O’Rear. NISTIR 85-3273-32. May 2017.
"[E]nergy price indices and discount factors for performing life-cycle cost analyses of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects in federal facilities."
Energy Use in Homes. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Major energy uses at home. Points out regional differences.
Green Power Pricing. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs); Utility and Competitive Electricity Supplier Green Power Products; Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs); and Self-Supplied Solar.
Learn about Energy and its Impact on the Environment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
What is clean energy?; How does energy use impact the environment?; Fuel mix for U.S. electricity generation; What is my personal impact?; and How can I reduce my impact?
Natural Gal Prices. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Electric power price, state by state (some withheld), 2012-2017, see also 1997-2017. Drop down menu offers other types of data such as city gate price and vehicle fuel price.
Prices & Trends. Department of Energy.
Sources & uses: petroleum, coal, natural gas, renewable, nuclear, electricity, consumption, and toital energy. Topics: analysis & projections, environment, markets & finance, and today in energy. Geography: states, country, and maps.
The Relationship Between Energy Prices and Food-Related Energy Use in the United States. Economic Research Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Patrick Canning and Sarah Rehkamp.
Discusses use of energy in the raising of food purchased in the United States.
Residential Energy Consumption Survey. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Overview, data, energy consumption. Methodology and features.
Short-term Energy Outlook. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Electricity: Forecasts, markets review, data, supplements.
Today in Energy. U.S. Energy Information Administration.
See archive on left-hand side.
Answers the question. Graph and further explanation of key points. Relevant case students (two).
- Calcante, Aldo et al. "Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions." Journal of Dairy Science 99.5 (May 2016): 4043-4047. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10490 (CSU affiliates and those will access via their own libraries)
- Reyna, Janet L., and Mikhail V. Chester. “Energy Efficiency to Reduce Residential Electricity and Natural Gas Use under Climate Change.” Nature Communications 8 (2017): 14916. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14916
Climate and energy, in brief.
Climate Change. Energy.gov
"Addressing the effects of climate change is a top priority of the Energy Department. As global temperatures rise, wildfires, drought, and high electricity demand put stress on the nation’s energy infrastructure."
"NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans’ health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather."
Energy, Water, and Land. GlobalChange.gov
"Explore climate change impacts on the intersections of energy, water, and land use."
- The U.S. Electric Power Sector and Climate Change Mitigation. Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Carnegie Mellon University. June 2005. 95 pages.
Agency Web Sites--Energy
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