Food--Table of Contents
Sections on this page are:
- Food--Eating Recommendations
- Food Allergies
- Food--Eating Disorders
- Food Waste
- Food Assistance for the Food Insecure or Hungry
- Food Workers
- Food--Growing and Harvesting
- Food--National Agriculture Library (focus on harvesting and growing food, past and present)
- Food--GMOs (Genetically Engineered Organisms) Related to Crops
- Food--Imports and Exports
- Food--International Organizations
- Food--Government Information in Print
Food‡ is necessary for life. Its abundance, sufficiency, or lack thereof has a direct impact on whether animals live or die. Dietary needs vary, even among mammals.♪ There are herbivores who are herbivorous, carnivores, and omnivores.‡ Humans attribute a lot to food and have spent either their entire lives looking for it (even today, called food insecurity), or, having sufficient food for survival (food security*), have explored other avenues of thought—art, music, architecture, sport, philosophy, literature, etc. Wars have been fought over access to food. Myth and legend* from multiple cultures include food. Staples* make up the mainstay of people's diets (and vary from culture to culture, family to family, and person to person). Eating habits† explore why and how people eat and more. Thus, there are multiple subtopics to explore on the topic of food.
Government resources provide information about how food fits into a society. For the purposes of this guide, the focus will be upon the United States of America (U.S.); however, if interest exists, it is worth exploring the official government sites of other countries.
Some starting thoughts on food:
"And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life."—Bible, Genesis 2.
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Say to the Israelites: ‘Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat: You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.'"—Leviticus 11:1-3
“'Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales. But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean."—Leviticus 11:9-10
"Lawful to you is the game of the sea and its food, a provision for you and for the travellers, and the game of the land is forbidden to you so long as you are on pilgrimage, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, to whom you shall be gathered"—Qur'an 5:96
"He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced by necessity, neither desiring it nor transgressing its limit, there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."—Qur’an 2:173
"Let him (the knower of Brahman) never condemn (deprecate) food; that is the vow."—Taittiriya Upanishad
"And having food and raiment, let us be therewith content."—Bible. 1 Timothy, 6:8
"What is food to one man may be fierce poison to others."—Lucretius
"The perpetual struggle for room and food."—Malthus
‡Defintions from Oxford English Dictionary. *Definitions from Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. †Definition from Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z. ♪The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. All available online to CSU affiliates only.
Dietary Guidelines. Health.gov
"The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is the Nation’s go-to source for nutrition advice. Published every 5 years for public health professionals, each edition of the Dietary Guidelines reflects the current body of nutrition science. These recommendations help Americans make healthy food and beverage choices and serve as the foundation for vital nutrition policies and programs across the United States." Find the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. 8th edition (in PDF/printed format 171 pages); there are graphs, tables, and charts. Includes discussions of eating patterns and recommended amounts of food.
MyPlate Resources. National Agricultural Library. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Dietary guidelines issued by the U.S. Government. On Choose MyPlate there are materials aimed at various audiences: children, students, adults, and professionals. Resources, information on food groups, graphic resources, and past food pyramid materials.
Dietary guidance, lifecycle nutrition, diet an disease, food composition, food safety, and more. Guidance includes a searchable database of digitized historical dietary guidance. Links to additional topics as well--and topics A-W.
Vegetarian Nutrition. USDA. NAL.
Links to topics related to vegetarian and vegan diets. For example, vegetarian diet on MedlinePlus (U.S. National Library of Medicine).
Health.gov. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP).
Includes links to dietary guidelines (listed under Food-Eating), physical activity guidelines, health literacy and communication, and health care quality and patient safety.
Healthfinder.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP).
Divided by health conditions and diseases, nutrition and physical activity, pregnancy, doctor visits, everyday healthy living, parenting, and A-W.
Healthy People 2020 (2030). Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP).
"Healthy People provides science-based, 10-year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans." "Healthy People 2020 is the result of a multiyear process that reflects input from a diverse group of individuals and organizations." Look through topics & objectives (note: "new" entries were not included in Healthy People 2010), leading health indicators, data search (baseline, target, desired direction), healthy people in action, tools & resources, and more.
State Retail and Food Services Codes and Regulations by State. FDA U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
State by state retail sites and food codes. Alphabetical.
Foodsafety.gov. Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information.
Recalls & alerts, keep food safe, who's at risk, food poisoning, report and problem, and ask the experts. See Recent Recalls.
Food Safety CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"Each year, 1 in 6 Americans get sick from eating contaminated food. CDC tracks foodborne illnesses and collaborates with state and local health departments and other federal agencies to investigate foodborne outbreaks. CDC’s work provides information to improve food safety." Site discusses foodborne germs and illnesses (there are more than 250 of them), outbreaks, challenges in food safety, and has a list of illnesses A-Y. Sections are aimed at consumers, healthcare professionals, health departments, and industry.
Food Safety Ag. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Sections and links to: Food and Nutrition (about fighting hunger, overview of SNAP); Food Labeling; Food Security (essay on topic); USDA Quality Standards (Grades and Standards for Beef, Cotton, Dairy, Eggs, Fish & Seafood, Flowers & Plants, Fruits, Goat, Lamb, Nuts, Organic, Pork, Poultry, Rabbits, Specialty Products, Tobacco, Vegetables, and Wool & Mohair); Active Recalls and Alerts; Be Food Safe; Fight BAC (Non-profit organization, not government site, but same topic as Be Food Safe: fight bacteria: clean, separate, cook, chill); Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC); FoodSafety.gov (topics such as safe minimum cooking temperatures, food poisoning, and more); Food Safety Discovery Zone; Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRIO) (see info just below); Report A Problem with Food; and USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline. AskUSDA is a guide to expert knowledge on handling and storing food safely and preventing food poisoning.
Food Safety GAO. Government Accounting Office.
The GAO's take on food safety. Issue summary, key reports, related GAO links, and more.
"Supporting the research community by collecting, organizing & disseminating food safety information in accordance with H.R. 2534 Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Reauthorization Act of 1997, SEC. 615." Research publications from peer-reviewed journals, published articles from USDA ARS National Program 108: Food Safety, research projects, latest reports, outbreak surveillance, and more.
Topics covered include: Recent Food Recalls; Food Outbreak Investigations; Information on Color Additives; Dietary Supplements; FSMA (Food Safety and Modernization Act); How to Start a Food Business; Food Labeling Guide; Registration of Food Facilities; and Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs). For example: Keep Listeria Out of Your Kitchen. Also of interest is Chapter 9 - Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (sections 301-399d).
Home Canning and Botulism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Overview with recommendations and links to additional resources.
Nutrition, Food Safety & Health. CSU Extension.
Informational publications on: Foodborne Illness; Food Preparation; Food Preservation (canning, drying, freezing, etc.); Food Safety & Local Foods; Food Storage; High Risk & Special Audiences; High Altitude (one free, others fee); and Nutrition & Health.
Allergies and Food Sensitivities. National Agricultural Library. USDA.
General information on food allergies.
Food Allergies in Schools. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Advice for developing plans to prevent allergic reactions to food allergies. Definition, managing, tool kit, resources, and references. A number of the resources and tool kit items are in PDF format.
Food Allergies: What You Need to Know. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Also PDF and in Spanish.
Information on allergies, FDA's role (labeling), what to do if symptoms occur, hard facts, major food allergens, how major food allergens are listed, know the symptoms, "advisory" labeling, and an allergy alert: mild symptoms can become more severe.
Food Allergy. MedlinePlus. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Summary with definition, places to start, latest news, symptoms, diagnosis and test,s prevention and risk factors, treatments and therapies, living with, related issues, specifics (specific food allergies: egg, fish, milk, peanuts, shellfish, soy, tree nut, and wheat), statistics and research, clinical trials, journal articles, find an expert, and information aimed at children, teenagers, and patients. Some material is also in Spanish and both Chinese simplified and Chinese traditional.
Food Allergy. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (NIAID). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
"NIAID is the lead Institute at the National Institutes of Health for research in food allergy. We are committed to supporting efforts to help better understand, prevent, and manage this disorder that affects approximately 5 percent of children and 4 percent of adults in the United States." Sections on understanding allergies, research on them, and guidelines from the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.007). Do a search for food allergy in the search box to find additional entries--they tend to be brief, but informative.
Links to information about these conditions can be found on the USDA National Agricultural Library site:
From National Institute of Mental Health (NIH):
MedlinePlus has information:
- Eating Disorders (MH.g). (Crisis Hotline Telephone numbers provided, as of September 2019.)
Let's Talk Trash. ChooseMyPlate.gov. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
"The USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP) has developed a new infographic — Let’s Talk Trash . . . to inform American consumers about food loss and waste." Links to one and two-page infographics with useful summary information.
Participants: USDA's U.S. Food Waste Challenge. Office of the Chief Economist. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Sections are private sector; universities and colleges, counties, state government agencies, and K-12 schools.
Reducing Wasted Food at Home. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Covers benefits of reducing wasted food, ways to reduce food, toolkit for home and community, and diversion from landfill methods.
Sustainable Management of Food. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Sections on understanding the issues; what businesses, institutions, and other organizations can do; and what individuals can do.
Articles (government Web sites):
- "Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by School Lunch Participants: Implications for the Success of New Nutrition Standards." Constance Newman. August 2013. United States Department of Agriculture.
- "The Climate Change and Economic Impacts of Food Waste in the United States." Kumar Venkat. International Journal on Food System Dynamics 2 (4), 2011, 431-446.
- "Food Waste within Food Supply Chains: Quantification and Potential for Change to 2050." Julian Parfitt, Mark Barthel, and Sarah Macnaughton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2010 Sep 27; 365(1554): 3065–3081. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0126 U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health.
Note: many cities and states have their own governmental information available online.
Food Assistance for the Food Insecure or Hungry
Food Assistance Programs. Nutrition.gov
Links to learn about various food assistance programs in the U.S. For example, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Child Nutrition Programs, Nutrition Programs for Seniors, and more.
USAID Food Assistance. From the American People.
"USAID is the lead U.S. Government agency that works to end extreme global poverty and enable resilient, democratic societies to realize their potential." Topics include agriculture, food assistance, and more. Results and data summarizes impact of USAID.
Information for Food Workers:
Food and Beverage Serving and Related Workers. Occupational Outlook Handbook. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Median pay, number of jobs, job outlook, and more. Describes what workers do, the work environment, pay, and more. Similar Occupations provides the same information for other related occupations.
Food Worker Manual. Washington State Department of Health.
"Study the Washington State Food and Beverage Workers' Manual to help you prepare for the food safety training class and exam to obtain your food worker card." Manual is available online in English, Cambodian, Chinese, Korean, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. A Braille version is available upon request.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA). U.S. Department of Labor.
Site has information on all industries, but of specific interest to food (selected--just a small fraction):
- Guidelines for Retail Grocery Stores OSHA 3192-05N 2004 (PDF). OSHA 3192-06N HTML
- A Menu for Protecting the Health and Safety of Restaurant Workers. 2011. (PDF)
- Meat Packing Industry
- Restaurant Safety for Young Workers
- Young Worker Safety in Restaurants Etool.
Retail Food Protection: Employee Health and Personal Hygiene Handbook. FDA U.S. Food & Drug Administration.
"The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed this Employee Health and Personal Hygiene Handbook to encourage practices and behaviors that can help prevent food employees from spreading viruses and bacteria to food. It provides information in a question-and-answer format that food establishment management and food employees can use to prevent the spread of disease. This handbook also provides easy reference to forms and tables that food establishments and the public health community may find useful when training staff and addressing employee health and hygiene matters. The information in this handbook is taken from those provisions in the 2005 FDA Food Code and its Supplement aimed at preventing ill food employees from transmitting disease.: Publication is also available in PDF.
Articles/Web sites (US Government):
- Fact Sheet #2 Restaurants and Fast Food Establishments Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Wage and Hour Division (WDD) Revised June 2009. U.S. Department of Labor
- Food Safety Practices of Restaurant Workers. Environmental Health Services (EHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
- Food Worker Handwashing and Restaurant Factors. EHS. CDC
- Food Workers Working When They Are Sick. EHS. CDC.
Organizations for Food Workers (Non-governmental):
"We represent over 300,000 farmworkers, warehouse, meatpacking and distribution workers, restaurant industry and workers all along the food chain and all across the country."
The "largest foodservice trade association in the world—supporting over 500,000 restaurant businesses. In partnership with our state restaurant associations, we work every day to empower all restaurant owners and operators to achieve more than they thought possible."
Members "standing together to improve the lives & livelihoods of workers, families, & communities."
- "An Estimated 28,000 Teens in Fast Food Jobs Are Rushed to the ER Each Year with Job-Related Injuries." Ann Pappert. HealthDay. Jan 20, 2016.
- "McDonald's Tells Its Employees to Sign Up for Food Stamps." Jordan Weissmann. The Atlantic Oct. 23, 2013.
Food--Growing and Harvesting
Agricultural Operations. Safety and Health Topics. U.S. Department of Labor.
Essay with illnesses and death statistics from employment in agricultural work.
Find data and data sets on topics related to agriculture and food. As of September 2019, clicking on Data reveals 516 datasets found.
Agriculture and Food. Government Accountability Office (GAO).
Reports and testimonies on agriculture and food. As of April 2016 there are over 1500 of them divided by: agricultural (ag) commodities, ag industry, ag products, ag programs, commodity marketing, economic development, farm income stabilization programs, food relief programs, grain and grain products, nutrition, program evaluation, and program management. For example: "Genetically Engineered Crops: USDA Needs to Enhance Oversight and Better Understand Impacts of Unintended Mixing with Other Crops." GAO-16-241.
Agriculture USTR. Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).
"USTR's Office of Agricultural Affairs has overall responsibility for U.S. government trade negotiations and policy development and coordination regarding agriculture. . . . Specific responsibilities include negotiation and implementation of the agricultural provisions of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Development Agenda, operation of the WTO Committees on Agriculture and Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures, agricultural regulatory issues (e.g., biotechnology, cloning, BSE, nanotechnology, other bilateral food safety, animal and plant health issues, and customs issues affecting agriculture), monitoring and enforcement of existing WTO and FTA commitments for agriculture and SPS issues, and WTO accession negotiations on agriculture market access, domestic support, export competition, and SPS matters."
America's Diverse Family Farms: 2017 Edition. USDA. Robert Hoppe
Available in PDF and print format. "This report provides an overview of U.S. farms, including the latest statistics on production, financial performance, and farm household characteristics by farm size categories. Among the findings are that 99 percent of U.S. farms are family farms, and they accounted for 90 percent of farm production in 2016."
Census of Agriculture. USDA.
"The Census of Agriculture is the leading source of facts and figures about American agriculture. Conducted every five years, the Census provides a detailed picture of U.S. farms and ranches and the people who operate them." Data search tools, find data by Congressional District, Historical Census Year, Race, Ethnicity & Gender, State & County, Topic. Find recent census years (2007, 2012, 2017).
House Committee on Agriculture. U.S. Congress.
About, news, subcommittees, hearings, and resources. About lists member information, issues in focus, legislation, and more. News has press releases and opening statements, among other topics. Subcommittees are: Commodity Exchanges, Energy, and Credit; Conservation and Forestry; Nutrition; General Farm Commodities and Risk Management; Biotechnology, Horticulture, and Research; and Livestock and Foreign Agriculture. Hearings include archived activity. Watch live hearings (via YouTube).
Publications (CSU Extension): Colorado State University Extension.
Of particular interest are sections on Agriculture, Insects, and Yard & Garden, but others may also be relevant. Selected titles in Spanish.
Topics, programs and services, newsroom, blog. Popular topics as of March 2016 are: Agency Reports; Career Opportunities; Climate Solutions; Dietary Guidelines; Disaster; Energy; Farm Bill; Food Safety; Housing Assistance; In Case You Missed It; New Farmers; New Media; Rural Opportunities; and Trade.
About (membership), newsroom (majority and minority news), hearings, legislation, nominations, and library (hearing transcripts, reports, and U.S. Code compilations--the current text of federal agricultural laws). Business meetings, past and future are posted.
- Colorado Agricultural Statistics. CAS 2014. USDA NASS Mountain Regional Office.
- 2018 State Agriculture Overview: Colorado
- Colorado Department of Agriculture
- Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment
- Colorado Retail Food Establishment Rules and Regulations. PDF 182 pages. Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment. Effective March 1 and July 1, 2013.
- Cottage Foods Act. Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment.
- Market Value of Ag Products Sold 2012 Colorado
Note: Most, or all states have their own departments of agriculture. Search your browser "[State] Department of Agriculture" to find them.
Food--National Agriculture Library (focus on harvesting and growing food, past and present)
National Agriculture Library. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
The other links in this box are to sites within the National Agriculture Library.
USDA Pomological Watercolor Collection
Browse by subject: Grazing Systems and Alternative Livestock Breeds; Organic Production; Farms and Community; Sustainability in Agriculture; Soil and Water Management; Alternative Marketing and Business Practices; Aquaculture and Soilless Farming; Alternative Crops and Plants; Education and Research; Energy; and Ecological Pest Management. Site includes A Glossary of Intercropping Terms.
Search for books (also serials, audiovisuals, and other resources) and articles (over 5 million; also book chapters, short reports, and reprints). Browse by subject: animals and livestock; education and outreach; food and nutrition; history, art and biography; laws and regulations; marketing and trade; natural resources and environment; plants and crops; research and technology; and rural and community development. Check CSU Library holdings before making an Interlibrary Loan request.
Digital materials and collections, some converted from print. Collections include: Fruit and Vegetable Market News Collection; Historical Dietary Guidance Digital Collection; Journal Articles, USDA Authors, Peer-Reviewed; Organic Roots Collection; Plant Inventory, U.S. Department of Agriculture; Reports of Bean Improvement Cooperative and National Dry Bean Council Research Conference; Rural Development Publications Collection; USDA Pomological Watercolor Collection ("documents new fruit and nut varieties, and specimens introduced by USDA plant explorers from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The collection spans the years 1886 to 1942"); and World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) Collection.
Links to USDA and other sites on organic agriculture and organic foods.
"PubAg is a portal to USDA-authored and other highly relevant agricultural research. At launch, it delivers over 42,207 full-text journal articles by USDA staff and includes nearly 1,153,416 citations. The Library will add about 20,000 citations each month. The new release also previews its directions for intended functionality and will serve as the foundation for further enhancements." (March 2016.) Has over 45,000 scholarly articles, many full-text. "PubAg covers all of the core topics of the agricultural sciences including nutrition, food safety, food quality, animal and crop production and protection, natural resources, sustainable agricultural systems, rural development, agricultural economic and policy issues, agricultural imports and exports, agricultural statistics, extramural research, and extension education." Some overlap with Agricola, but has different types of information. Check CSU Library holdings before making an Interlibrary Loan request for the items not full-text in the database.
Aimed at military veterans, provides resources and encouragement to veterans pursuing farming as a career.
Food--GMOs (Genetically Engineered Organisms) Related to Crops
CSU affiliates may read definitions and descriptions of these topics: Genetically Modified Foods (Genetics, 2006), Genetically Modified Food (Biotechnology in Context, 2012), Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (Food: In Context, 2011) Genetically Modified Food (The Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health, 2013), and "Are genetically modified foods and crops dangerous to human health and to the environment[?]" (Science in Dispute, 2003). Affiliates can find other definitions and descriptions on this topic from various reference books in the Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Documents about genetically engineered organisms (GMOs) include:
- Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. See also summary data set for corn, upland cotton and soybeans by state 2000-19.
- Consumer Info About Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. Food. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Different Applications for Genetically Modified Crops. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Rural Enterprises, Agriculture & Technology of the Committee on Small Business. House of Representatives. One Hundred Ninth Congress. First Session. Washington DC, June 29, 2005
- Food from New Plant Varieties. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States. (PDF) Jorge Fernandez-Cornegjo, et al. Economic Research Report Number 162. February 2014. United States Department of Agriculture.
- Genetically Engineered Foods. MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- Genetically Modified Foods: Experts View Regimen of Safety Tests as Adequate, but FDA's Evaluation Process Could Be Enhanced. (PDF) Report to Congressional Requesters. United States General Accounting Office. May 2002.
- Guidance for Industry: Voluntary Labeling Indicating Whether Foods Have or Have Not Been Derived from Genetically Engineered Plants. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use in the United States: The First Thirteen Years. Charles Benbrook. November 2009.
- Investigation of Human Health Effects Associated with Potential Exposure to Genetically Modified Corn: A Report to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (PDF) June 11, 2001. CDC.
- "Regulation of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Under FIFRA, FFDCA and TSCA." Regulation of Agricultural Biotechnology: The United States and Canada (Chapter 4), C.A. Wozniak and A. McHughen, eds., 57-94. DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2156-2_4, © US Government 2013. EPA.
- Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: United States. LAW.gov. Library of Congress.
- Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms: [World]. LAW.gov. Library of Congress.
See also Agriculture and Food (above under Food-growing and harvesting)
Food--Imports and Exports
Exporting Food Products from the United States. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Information on FDA requirements. Special attention re: exporting to China, dairy products, and seafood.
Import and Export Data. United States Department of Agriculture. Food Safety and Inspection Service.
"Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains volume of imported meat, poultry and egg products presented for reinspection by FSIS at port of entry. This is reported by country in pounds and percentage of the total." 2005-2018 as of 9/19.
"APHIS plays a vital role in ensuring the free flow of agricultural trade by keeping U.S. agricultural industries free from pests and diseases and certifying that the millions of U.S. agricultural and food products shipped to markets abroad meet the importing countries' entry requirements." See Plant Health (PPQ).
Importing Food Products into the United States. U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Learn about procedures and requirements.
"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Imported Food Safety" (Appendix E, Enhancing Food Safety: The Role of the Food and Drug Administration. National Research Council (US) Committee on the Review of Food and Drug Administration's Role in Ensuring Safe Food; Wallace RB, Oria M, editors. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2010.)
Lengthy page with detailed information. Reference list. "Imported foods come to the United States from nearly 200 countries, none of which have exactly the same pesticide, food additive, and veterinary drug approval systems as the United States, and many of which do not have such systems at all."
U.S Food Imports: Overview. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
10 years of annual data for value of U.S. food imports, volume, unit value, source countries, and more. Data sets in Excel.
U.S. Processed Food Exports: Growth & Outlook. May 6, 2014. International Agricultural Trade Reports. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service.
Commodities, locations, and topics. PDF version available (5 pages).https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/
Articles/Press Releases/Web pages/Trade Data/Congress of interest:
- CDC Research Shows Outbreaks Linked to Imported Foods Increasing. March 14, 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Economic Research Service. USDA.
- H.R.1942 - Safeguard American Food Exports Act of 2015. 114th Congress. House--Energy and Commerce; Agriculture. Congress.gov
- NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances: Questions & Answers. EPA.
- Trade: U.S. Rice Exports, U.S. Rice Imports. USDA Economic Research Service. See Crops for others.
Team Nutrition Recipes. USDA.
Recipes for large groups.
Healthy Recipes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Search or browse for recipes. Advanced search allow for searching by ingredient, course, type of dish, total time, servings, and more. Recipes include nutrition facts.
Recipes. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NIH.
As of March 2016, includes DASH Eating Plan, Latino recipes, African American style, Keep the Beat, and more. Food exchange lists, and other eating tips.
Links to sites that include recipes.
Ethnic Cooking. Nutrition.gov
Links to sites with recipes.
Search for recipes. Also cookbooks, recipe tools, spotlights.
Get the Facts: Sodium's Role in Processed Food. Center for Disease Control.
2 page overview. Advice for how to cut sodium from one's diet.
Healthy Processed Food Research. USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS).
See what projects are ongoing, related news topics, and publications.
U.S. Processed Food Exports: Growth & Outlook. United States Department of Agriculture. Foreign Agricultural Service.
Information on the export of processed food.
Articles of interest:
- "Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003-2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council." H.A. Eicher-Miller, V.L. Fulgoni 3rd, and D.R. Keast. Journal of Nutrition 142.11 (Nov 2012): 2065S-2072S. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.164442. Epub 2012 Sep 18.
- "Is 'Processed' a Four-Letter Word? The Role of Processed Foods in Achieving Dietary Guidelines and Nutrient Recommendations." Johanna T. Dwyer et al. 2012 Advances in Nutrition 3 (2012): 536–548. doi:10.3945/an.111.000901
- "Processed Foods: Contributions to Nutrition." C.M Weaver et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99.6 (Jun. 2014): 1525-42. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.089284. Epub 2014 Apr 23.
- "Ultra-processed Foods and Added Sugars in the US Diet: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study." Euridice Martinez Steele, et al. BMJ Open 6 (9 Mar. 2016): e009892 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009892 (HealthDay News on Medline Plus summary: Half of Americans' Calories Come from . . .)
- "Ultra-processed Foods in Human Health: A Critical Appraisal." Gibney MJ, Forde CG, Mullally D1, Gibney ER. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 106.3 (2017 Sept.): 717-724. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.160440.
- "Ultra-processed Food Consumption and Exposure to Phthalates and Bisphenols in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2014." Jessie P. Buckley, Hyunju Kim, Eugenia Wong, Casey M. Rebholz. Environment International, Volume 131, October 2019. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.105057
This box/section of the Food page has links to organizations, sections of organization Web sites, or lists of organizations that are not governmental. For example, the United Nations is an international organization made up of member states. Note, because these are not U.S. Federal documents, extra attention and care must be taken to avoid copyright infringements. Educational fair use allows you to use what you find within your classroom and turned in to an instructor; however, this does not permit the placing of the images on a Web site or a paper to be published--permission must be requested and granted first in these latter cases.
101 Global Food Organizations to Watch in 2015. foodtank 30 January 2015.
Annotated list with link to named organizations.
Downloadable publications on topics from around the world. For example: "Cereal supply and demand balance for sub-Saharan African countries, Situation as of February 2016."
Safe Food International (SFI). Center for Science in the Public Interest.
SFI is "a project designed by and for consumer organizations that want to improve food safety on a global scale. SFI aims to unify and focus the efforts of consumer organizations worldwide that are working to ensure a safer food supply by assuring that their national food safety programs address common food safety problems, approve foods before they are consumed or exported to other countries, and deter the use of food as a target of intentional contamination."
UN Comtrade Database. United Nations.
"UN Comtrade is a repository of official trade statistics and relevant analytical tables. It contains annual trade statistics starting from 1962 and monthly trade statistics since 2010." Find import and exports, re-imports and re-exports of pre-defined topics, such as, 1806 - Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa; find trade value, net weight, and quantity. Click in data boxes to see or type in options. Downloadable in CSV. The Data Visualizations have links to multiple sites with images.
The Yearbook of the United Nations. 1946-47- (as of late September 2019, most recent is 2014. English, French Russian, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese (?).
Browse or search the yearbook online. 1946-47 has around 953 pages; 2010 has over 1580 pages. Search by topic, such as food. Search options allows for the searching of individual years, sort, display by page or chapter, search Web-style or phrase.
Food--Government Information in Print
CSU Libraries (CSUL) has an extensive collection of print government documents. The topic of food lends itself to the Department of Agriculture (and CSUL tries to have a copy of every item, including Hearings and Reports, which are found under the Y SuDoc numbers). The majority of print documents are located in the Basement South of Morgan Library (some titles are in Docs Ref and other locations). For example:
- Agriculture's Role in Combating Global Hunger: Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, First Session, December 2, 2015. Y 4.AG 8/3:S.HRG.114-268 Documents
- Common Sense Nutrition Disclosure Act of 2015: Report Together with Dissenting Views (to Accompany H.R. 2017) (Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office). Y 1.1/8:114-413 Documents
- Food Safety Enhancement Act of 2009 Discussion Draft: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, June 3, 2009. Y 4.C 73/8:111-41 Documents
- A Review of Child Nutrition Programs: Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, First Session, May 7, 2015. Y 4.AG 8/3:S.HRG.114-149 Documents
- Serving up MyPlate [kit]: A Yummy Curriculum: Standards-Based Nutrition Education. A 98.2:M 99/ LEV.1 & LEV.2 & LEV.3 Documents
Find additional items by doing a subject search in the library catalog (not all items will be documents, but you can limit to government publications if you wish) using these terms--they are but a sampling of possibilities!:
- Agricultural Colleges United States
- Agricultural Subsidies
- Agriculture and State
- Agriculture and State United States
- Agriculture Economic Aspects United States
- Agriculture Research United States
- Food Adulteration and Inspection United States
- Food Habits United States
- Food Labeling Law and Legislation United States
- Pesticide Residues in Food
- Product Recall United States [not always food related, but of interest]
- Restaurants Law and Legislation United States
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